Common Names in English:
Hawkweed, Maryland Hawkweed
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, (5 ) 20 150+ cm; taprooted (rootstocks
sometimes woody, branched; stolons produced
in some taxa) . Stems usually 1, usually erect
, usually branched distally, sometimes throughout, sometimes scapiform
, see discussion) . Leaves basal, basal and cauline, or cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blades
, lanceolate, oblanceolate
, or spatulate
, or dentate
glabrous or hairy, induments often complex, see discussion) . Heads borne singly or in corymbiform
, thyrsiform, umbelliform, or nearly racemiform
arrays. Peduncles (terminal
) not inflated
, often bracteate
. Calyculi 0 or of 3 13( 16+), deltate to lanceolate or linear
(in 1 2+ series; sometimes intergrading with phyllaries) . Involucres hemispheric
, 3 9[ 12+] mm diam. Phyllaries 5 21( 40+) in 2+ series, lanceolate to linear, subequal
to unequal (reflexed
in fruit), margins usually little, if at all, scarious
, apices obtuse
to acute or acuminate. Receptacles flat, pitted
, glabrous, epaleate. Florets 6 150+; corollas usually yellow, sometimes white or ochroleucous
, sometimes tinged with cyan
or red, rarely orange (then often drying scarlet or purplish) . Cypselae usually red-brown or black (tan in H. horridum), usually ± columnar
, sometimes ± urceolate
(slightly bulbous proximally and narrower distally) or nearly fusiform
, not distinctly beaked
) usually 10, faces glabrous; pappi persistent
(fragile), of 20 80+, distinct
, white, sordid
, or rufous
, ± equal or unequal, barbellulate
in 1 2+ series. x = 9.
Species 250 1000+: North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa.
Most plants referable to Hieracium are apomictic (reproducing from asexually produced seeds) . Apomictic reproduction often results in perpetuation of morphologic variants at populational and regional levels. Temptation to name such variants as species has proven irresistible to some botanists; upward of 9,000 species names have been published in Hieracium. Circumscriptions of "species" in Hieracium seem to be more artificial than in most genera of composites . Under these circumstances, I feel it would be irresponsible to recognize any infraspecific taxa here. For the most part, the "species" recognized here are those that have been recognized in local and regional floras of the past 50 or so years. Accepted names and/or changes in synomymies for some species reflect changes suggested by J. H. Beaman (1990), A. Cronquist (1980), and E. G. Voss (1972 1996, vol. 3) . I have maintained a traditional generic circumscription of Hieracium. Some other botanists exclude some species (including numbers 1 6 here) from Hieracium and treat them in Pilosella Hill , which differs from Hieracium in having stolons often produced, ribs of cypselae slightly projecting distally, and bristles of the pappi in one series. For Greenland, T. W. Böcher et al. (1968) reported 18 species of Hieracium: 16 said to be endemic to Greenland plus H. alpinum Linnaeus (known from Greenland and Eurasia ) and H. groenlandicum Arvet-Touvet (= H. vulgatum Fries; known from Greenland and continental North America) . Following H. J. Scoggan (1978 1979, part 4), I have placed 15 names of Greenland "endemics" as synonyms of other names. The type of the 16th "endemic," H. trigonophorum Oskarsson, is probably conspecific with that of H. alpinum. In my key and descriptions , "piloso-hirsute" refers to surfaces with scattered to crowded, tapered, whiplike, straight or curly, smooth to ± barbellate hairs mostly (0.5 ) 2 8( 15+) mm (sometimes called "setae") ; "stellate-pubescent" refers to surfaces with scattered to crowded, ± dendritically branched (often called, but seldom truly, "stellate") hairs mostly 0.05 0.2+ mm (such surfaces are sometimes described as "floccose") ; and "stipitate-glandular" refers to surfaces with scattered to crowded gland-tipped hairs mostly 0.2 0.8( 1.2+) mm. Surfaces of stems, leaves, peduncles, and phyllaries may be glabrous or may bear one, two, or all three of the types of hairs mentioned here; other induments are seldom encountered in hieraciums of the flora area. Given the complexity of the reproductive modes among the plants and the likelihood of misidentifications of vouchers , I have not included chromosome numbers for species. Sexual hieraciums are usually diploids (2n = 18) and the apomictic hieraciums are usually triploids (2n = 27) .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Hieracium marianum Willd. (Pro Sp.) • Hieracium pennsylvanicum Fries
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Hieracium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 163 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
H. acranthophorum (Tunugdliarfik Hawkweed) · H. acranthophorum var. acranthophorum (Tunugdliarfik Hawkweed) · H. acranthophorum var. isortoquense (Tunugdliarfik Hawkweed) · H. albiflorum (White Hawkweed) · H. alleghaniense (Alleghany Hawkweed) · H. alpinum (Alpine Hawkweed) · H. amitsokense (Royal Hawkweed) · H. angmagssalikense (Blackstyle Hawkweed) · H. argutum (Southern Hawkweed) · H. argutum var. argutum (Southern Hawkweed) · H. arvense (Perennial Sowthistle) · H. atramentarium (Hawkweed) · H. atratum (Polar Hawkweed) · H. aurantiacum (Orange Hawkweed) · H. bolanderi (Bolander Hawkweed) · H. caespitosum (Field Hawkweed) · H. canadense (Canada Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. canadense (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. canadense Michx. (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. divaricatum (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. divaricatum Lepage (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. fasciculatum (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. subintegrum (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. canadense var. subintegrum Lepage (Canadian Hawkweed) · H. carneum (Huachuca Hawkweed) · H. cernuiforme (Hawkweed) · H. cynoglossoides (Hounds-Tongue Hawkweed) · H. devoldii (Devold's Hawkweed) · H. dutillyanum (Hawkweed) · H. eugenii (Neria Hawkweed) · H. fassettii (Fassett's Hawkweed) · H. fassettii Lepage var. wisconsinense Lepage (pro nm.) (Wisconsin Hawkweed) · H. fassettii var. fassettii (Fassett's Hawkweed) · H. fassettii var. mendicum (Fassett's Hawkweed) · H. fassettii var. wisconsinense (Wisconsin Hawkweed) · H. fendleri (Yellow Hawksbeard) · H. fendleri var. discolor (Yellow Hawkweed) · H. fendleri var. discolor Gray (Yellow Hawkweed) · H. fendleri var. fendleri (Fendler's Hawkweed) · H. fendleri var. fendleri Sch.Bip. (Fendler Hawkweed) · H. fendleri var. mogollense (Mogollon Hawkweed) · H. fendleri var. mogollense Gray (Mogollon Hawkweed) · H. fernaldii (Fernald's Hawkweed) · H. flagellare (Hawkweed) · H. flagellare var. amauracron (Hawkweed) · H. flagellare var. cernuiforme (Hawkweed) · H. flagellare var. flagellare (Hawkweed) · H. flagellare var. glatzense (Hawkweed) · H. flagellare var. pilosius (Hawkweed) · H. flagellare Willd. (pro sp.) var. flagellare Willd. (pro sp.) (Hawkweed) · H. floribundum (Hawkweed) · H. lactucella (Lindenleaf Rosemallow) · H. fuscatrum (Hawkweed) · H. gracile (Alpine Hawkweed) · H. gracile var. alaskanum (Alaska Hawkweed) · H. gracile var. alaskanum Zahn (Alaska Hawkweed) · H. gracile var. detonsum (Low Alpine Hawkweed) · H. gracile var. gracile (Slender Hawkweed) · H. gracile var. yukonense (Yukon Hawkweed) · H. gracile var. yukonense Porsild (Yukon Hawkweed) · H. greenei (Greene's Hawkweed) · H. greenii (Maryland Hawkweed) · H. groenlandicum (Greenland Hawkweed) · H. grohii (Groh's Hawkweed) · H. gronovii (Gronovis Hawkweed) · H. horridum (Prickly Hawkweed) · H. hyparcticum (Arctic Hawkweed) · H. inuloides (Butterfly Hawkweed) · H. ivigtutense (Holsteinsborg Hawkweed) · H. kalmii (Kalm's Hawkweed) · H. kalmii var. kalmii (Kalm's Hawkweed) · H. lachenalii (Common Hawkweed) · H. lactucella (Hawkweed) · H. laevigatum (Smooth Hawkweed) · H. lanatum (Hairy Hawkweed) · H. lemmonii (Lemmon's Hawkweed) · H. lividorubens (Cow Hawkweed) · H. lividorubens var. lividorubens (Cow Hawkweed) · H. lividorubens var. pseudostylum (Cow Hawkweed) · H. lividorubens var. subnudulum (Cow Hawkweed) · H. longiberbe (Long-Bearded Hawkweed) · H. longipilum (Hairy Hawkweed) · H. maculatum (Spotted Hawkweed) · H. marianum (Hawkweed) · H. megacephalon (Coastal Plain Hawkweed) · H. lactucella (Crevice Alumroot) · H. lactucella (Showy Goldeneye) · H. murorum (Wall Hawkweed) · H. musartutense (Musartut Hawkweed) · H. nepiocratum (Lindenows Fjord Hawkweed) · H. paniculatum (Allegheny Hawkweed) · H. lactucella (Littleflower Alumroot) · H. lactucella (Littleleaf Alumroot) · H. perpropinquum (Hawkweed) · H. pilosella (Mouse-Ear Hawkweed) · H. pilosella pseudosedunense (Mouse-Ear Hawkweed) · H. pilosella var. niveum (Mouseear Hawkweed) · H. pilosella var. pilosella (Mouseear Hawkweed) · H. piloselloides (King-Devil Hawkweed) · H. pilosius (Hawkweed)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 328, p. 331.
- An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language, by George T. Stevens. .. with more than 1800 illustrations from drawings by the author. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1910. url p. 622.
- Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. New-York: 1824-1876. url p. 209.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 671.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 719, p. 722.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 29 - 41 1957 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 20, p. 41.
- Botany of the northern and middle states, or, A description of the plants found in the United States, north of Virginia: arranged according to the natural system: with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnaean system. .. / Albany: Printed by Webster and Skinners. .., 1833. url p. 166.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 14.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 236, p. 338.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 51 1924 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 199, p. 200, p. 506.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 236.
- Catalogue of plants which have been found growing without cultivation in the park and its outlying territories collected, mounted and catalogued for the plant herbarium in the superintendent's office at Niagara Falls, Ontario / by Roderick Cameron. Niagara Falls, Ont.?: s.n., 1896? url , .
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 414.
- Compendium floræ philadelphicæ: containing a description of the indigenous and naturalized plants found within a circuit of ten miles around Philadelphia / by William P.C. Barton. Philadelphia: published by M. Carey, 1818. url p. 92.
- Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory and the Morris Arboretum of the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: [s.n., url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 6 1901 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 64.
- Flora of Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Boston, Printed for the Society, 1922. url , p. 356.
- Flora of Burlington and vicinity; a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation, by Nellie F. Flynn. Burlington, Free Press Printing Co., 1911. url p. 99, p. 99.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 284.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 1106.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 646.
- Florula bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its vicinity, with their generic and specific characters, principal synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. By Jacob Bigelow. .. Boston, Cummings, Hilliard, & co., 1824. url p. 288.
- Florula cestrica: an essay towards a catalogue of the phænogamous plants, native and naturalized, growing in the vicinity of the borough of West-Chester, in Chester County, Pennsylvania; to which is subjoined an appen by William Darlington. West-Chester, Penn.: Printed for the author by S. Siegfried, 1826. url p. 84.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url , p. 73.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 1492, p. 1493.
- Michigan flora: a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation / prepared by W.J. Beal. [Lansing, Mich.]: State Board of Agriculture: 1904. url .
- Nantucket wild flowers / by Alice O. Albertson; illustrated by Anne Hinchman. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1921. url p. 424, p. 424, p. 433, p. 433.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 578.
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 753.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 534.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 198, p. 200, p. 40.
- Pursh, F. T. Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North america. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years travels and residence in that country /by Frederick Pursh. .. 2 1814 London: Printed for White, Cochrance, and co., 1814. url p. 503.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url p. 14.
- Supplemental notes on the flora of Cap-a-l'Aigle by Robert Campbell. S.l.: s.n., 1892? url .
- The American journal of science and arts. New-Haven: S. Converse, url p. 319.
- The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island, and Gardiner's Island / New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1914? url p. 32.
- The native flora of the vicinity of Cold Spring Harbor, L.I., New York. n.p., 1925 url p. 208.
- The plant life of Maryland, by Forrest Shreve [et al.] Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1910. url p. 488.
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 117.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url , .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 719.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 719.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 32, p. 87.
- Year book - Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington url p. 100.
- Beaman, J. H. 1990. Revision of Hieracium (Asteraceae) in Mexico and Central America. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 29: 177.
- Fernald, M. L. 1943c. Notes on Hieracium. Rhodora 45: 317325.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3875172
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-37715
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:219848-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37715
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST4W1U0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HIPE2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 42984