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Hemerocallis 'Bird Woman'

(Bird Woman Daylily)

Common Names

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Common Names in English:

Bird Woman Daylily


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Family Hemerocallidaceae

A family of flowering plants that includes daylilies and New Zealand flax. The genus Hemerocallis was assigned its own family name in 1982 by Dahlgren and Clifford. (See pp. 36-39, "Biosystematics ," by Barr Daylily Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, fall 1987. Not all authorities agree, and some place the genus in the family Asparagales. In the family, pedicels are articulated, septal nectaries infralocular, and the ovary superior. Other details: Habit various; flavonols, napthoquinones, saponins +; roots often swollen; mucilage cells 0; raphides 0; cuticular wax rodlets parallel; leaves (spirally) 2-ranked, conduplicate to flat-conduplicate, keeled , the keel unifacial , sheath closed ; inflorescence various, (bracteoles lateral ); pedicel usu. articulated; (flowers monosymmetric , median tepal of outer whorl adaxial - Hemerocallis), T tube short (1/2 way - Hemerocallis; 0), filaments often ornamented, (anthers centrifixed), pollen usu. trichotomosulcate, infra-locular septal nectaries +, 1-many tenuinucellate ovules/carpel, nucellar cap +, chalazal nucellus well developed; endosperm usu. helobial, stigma dry (wet); fruit also a berry (nut, schizocarp); seeds ovoid , (with strophiole/aril); endosperm hemicellulosic, embryo also short; n = 4 [Agrostocrinum], 8, 9, 11, 12, chromosomes 0.8-10 µm long; (cotyledon not photosynthetic - Dianella), epicotyl long or not (hypocotyl 0; collar +), primary root well developed, branched or not.

Genus Hemerocallis

Herbs, perennial , scapose , clump-forming , rhizomatous , from fibrous or fleshy contractile roots often enlarged at ends; rhizomes spreading . Leaves many, basal, sessile, 2-ranked, bases sheathing ; blade long-linear, keeled , apex acuminate. Inflorescences 2, in terminal helicoid cyme, or solitary. Flowers mostly diurnal and ephemeral , slightly irregular, showy; tepals 6, connate basally into short, funnelform to campanulate tube , distinct parts imbricate, spreading, inner broader than outer; stamens 6, adnate to throat of perianth tube; filaments curved upward, distinct, unequal; anthers dorsifixed , 2-locular, linear-oblong, dehiscence introrse ; ovary superior, green, 3-locular, conic, septal nectaries present; style curved upwards; stigma indistinctly 3-lobed or capitate. Fruits capsular , leathery, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds rarely produced (sterile ) or many. x = 11.

Species 15-30: introduced ; temperate zones worldwide; temperate e Asia.

Hemerocallis is important economically as medicinal, poisonous, edible, and/or horticultural plants , which have been in Chinese culture for thousands of years (W. Erhardt 1992) . Hemerocallin, a root neurotoxin , can be both poisonous and useful medicinally as an analgesic, diuretic, arsenic-poisoning antidote, and treatment for schistosomiasis (J. A. Duke and E. S. Ayensu 1985; W. Erhardt 1992; Hu S. Y. 1968) . In Asia, flowers (buds and perianths), shoots , and tuberous roots (following suitable preparation) are important foods (G. Kunkel 1984) . Daylilies are among the most popular North American garden plants. Registered cultivars of Hemerocallis now exceed 38,000, including more than 13,000 named clones of H. fulva (G. Grosvenor 1999; R. M. Kitchingman 1985; R. W. Munson Jr. 1989; W. B . Zomlefer 1998) .

Hemerocallis has been included in a broadly circumscribed segregate family Hemerocallidaceae with 13-18 genera mainly from the Southern Hemisphere, especially Australia (W. B. Zomlefer 1998; H. T. Clifford et al. 1998), or placed alone in a monotypic Hemerocallidaceae (A. L. Takhtajan 1997) . The dwarf , yellow-flowered Hemerocallis minor P. Miller, grass-leaf daylily, has been reported as a local escape in Oregon.[1]

Physical Description

Flowers: Bloom Period: early midseason (em) • Flower Color: goldyellow-orange, red-orange


Size: 24-36" tall.


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Culture: Space 18-24" apart.

Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)


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Similar Species

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Members of the genus Hemerocallis

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 32352 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

H. 'Alabama Jubilee' (Alabama Jubilee Daylily) · H. altissima (Tall Daylily) · H. aurantiaca (Orange Daylily) · H. 'Bittersweet Honey' (Bittersweet Honey Daylily) · H. 'Bright Sunset' (Bright Sunset Daylily) · H. bulbiferum (Daylily) · H. 'Chesapeake Crablegs' (Chesapeake Crablegs Daylily) · H. citrina (Citron Day-Lily) · H. coreana (Daylily) · H. darrowiana (Daylily) · H. dumortieri (Bracted Daylily) · H. exaltata (Daylily) · H. forrestii (Daylily) · H. 'Forty Carats' (Forty Carats Daylily) · H. fulva (Day Lily) · H. fulva var. aurantiaca (Orange Day Lily) · H. fulva var. fulva (Orange Daylily) · H. fulva var. littorea (Daylily) · H. fulva var. longituba (Daylily) · H. fulva var. rosea (Daylily) · H. fulva var. sempervirens (Daylily) · H. 'Gertrude Lanham' (Gertrude Lanham Daylily) · H. hakuunensis (Daylily) · H. kwanso (Daylily) · H. 'Late Recurve' (Late Recurve Daylily) · H. lilio-asphodelus (Day Lily) · H. lilioasphodelus (Custard Lily) · H. lilioasphodelus var. yezoensis (Yellow Daylily) · H. 'Little Italy' (Little Italy Daylily) · H. 'Luna' (Daylily) · H. micrantha (Daylily) · H. middendorffii (Daylily) · H. middendorffii var. esculenta (Daylily) · H. minor (Small Daylily) · H. multiflora (Daylily) · H. pedicellata (Daylily) · H. plicata (Daylily) · H. 'Purple Storm' (Purple Storm Daylily) · H. 'Pygmy Prince' (Pygmy Prince Daylily) · H. 'Royal Frosting' (Royal Frosting Daylily) · H. thunbergii (Thunbergs Daylily) · H. undulata (Undulata Daylily) · H. washingtonia (Washingtonia Daylily) · H. 'Woodside Ruby' (Woodside Ruby Daylily) · H. x Chicago Fire' (Chicago Fire Daylily) · H. x Darius (Darius Day Lily) · H. x 'Ann Warner' (Ann Warner Daylily) · H. x 'Anzac (Anzac Daylily) · H. x 'Aztec Gold' (Aztec Gold Daylily) · H. x 'Baja' (Baja Daylily) · H. x 'Bitsy' (Bitsy Daylily) · H. x 'Black Eyed Susan' (Black-Eyed Susan Daylily) · H. x 'Bonanza' (Bonanza Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Bright Yellow' (Bright Yellow Daylily) · H. x 'Buried Treasure' (Buried Treasure Daylily) · H. x 'Butterscotch Ruffles (Butterscotch Ruffles Daylily) · H. x 'Chicago Apache' (Chicago Apache Daylily) · H. x 'Chicago Picotee Lace' (Chicago Picotee Lace Daylily) · H. x 'Chicago Rosy' (Chicago Rosy Daylily) · H. x 'Chicago Royale' (Chicago Royale Daylily) · H. x 'Chicago Sunrise' (Chicago Sunrise Daylily) · H. x 'Children's Festival' (Children`s Festival Daylily) · H. x 'Cranberry Baby' (Cranberry Baby Daylily) · H. x 'Dacquiri' (Dacquiri Daylily) · H. x 'Daring Deception' (Daring Deception Daylily) · H. x 'Eenie Allegro' (Eenie Allegro Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Happy Returns' (Happy Returns Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Hyperion' (Hyperion Daylily) · H. x 'Ice Carnival' (Ice Carnival Daylily) · H. x 'Irish Ice' (Irish Ice Daylily) · H. x 'Irish Limerick' (Irish Limerick Daylily) · H. x 'James Marsh' (James Marsh Daylily) · H. x 'Joan Senior' (Joan Senior Daylily) · H. x 'Jo Wood' (Jo Wood Daylily) · H. x 'Jungle Princess' (Jungle Princess Daylily) · H. x 'Lemon Yellow' (Lemon Yellow Daylily) · H. x 'Little Bugger' (Little Bugger Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Little Business' (Little Business Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Little Grapette' (Little Grapette Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Little Skipper' (Little Skipper Daylily) · H. x 'Lord Randal' (Lord Randal Daylily) · H. x 'Luxury Lace' (Luxury Lace Daylily) · H. x 'Malja' (Golden Zebra® Daylily) · H. x 'Mary Todd' (Mary Todd Daylily) · H. x 'Mikado' (Mikado Daylily) · H. x 'Ming Toy' (Ming Toy Daylily) · H. x 'Mini Pearl' (Mini Pearl Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Mini Stella' (Mini Stella Dwarf Daylily) · H. x 'Mond' (Starburst® Red Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monge' (Starburst® Orange Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monie' (Starburst® Susie Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monld' (Starburst® Single Gold Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monold' (Starburst® Double Gold Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monon' (Starburst® Salmon Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monow' (Starburst® Yellow Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'Monve' (Starburst® Mauve Evergreen Daylily) · H. x 'My Signature' (My Signature Daylily) · H. x 'Pandora's Box' (Pandora's Box Daylily) · H. x 'Paprika Velvet' (Paprika Velvet Daylily) · H. x 'Pardon Me' (Pardon Me Dwarf Daylily)

More Info

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Further Reading

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  1. Gerald B. Straley & Frederick H. Utech "Hemerocallis". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 51, 53, 57, 219. Oxford University Press. Online at [back]
Last Revised: 2/1/2015