Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Da Wei Yao
Common Names in English:
India Heliotrope, Alacrancillo, Indian Heliotrope, Turnsole
Common Names in Hindi:
Hattasura, Siriyari, हटासुरा, िसिरयारी
Common Names in Spanish:
, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
, rarely subshrubs
, rarely scabrous
. Leaves alternate, less often opposite, sessile or petiolate
. Cymes terminal
, rarely axillary
, scorpioid, bracteate
or not. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla white or light bluish purple, less often yellow, cylindric
, strigose outside, glabrous
and rarely appressed
pubescent inside; throat
frequently pubescent; limb 5-parted; lobes
, sometimes linear
with folds or undulate
extremely short; anthers
. Ovary completely or incompletely divided
into 4 lobes; ovules 4. Style terminal; stigma conical
or ringlike. Fruit nutletlike dry drupes, without evident mesocarp
at maturity, endocarp bony, dividing into 4 1-seeded or 2 2-seeded mericarps. Seeds straight or curved
, usually with a thin endosperm.
About 250 species: tropical and temperate regions ; ten species in China.
Species Heliotropium indicum
Herbs annual , 20-50 cm tall. Stems erect , stout, much branched, strigose . Leaves alternate or subopposite; petiole 2-5 cm; leaf blade 3-9 × 2-4 cm, pubescent or strigose, base rounded or truncate , decurrent to petiole, margin undulate , apex acute; lateral veins 5-7 pairs. Cymes solitary, scorpioid, 5-15 cm, ebracteate . Flowers sessile, crowded. Calyx lobes lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm, strigose. Corolla light blue or blue-purple, salverform , 3-4 mm, base ca. 1 mm wide; throat contracted to ca. 0.5 mm; limb 2-2.5 mm wide; lobes rotund , ca. 1 mm wide, margin crispate. Anthers narrowly ovate , ca. 0.5 mm, inserted ca. 1 mm above base. Ovary glabrous . Style ca. 0.5 mm; stigma conical , pubescent. Fruit ribbed , 3-3.5 mm, glabrous or nearly so, deeply 2-cleft into mericarps each divided into 2 1-seeded pyrenes; mericarps longitudinally ribbed. Fl. and fr. Apr-Oct. 2n = 22, 24, 44, 64. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September, October, November. • Flower Color: near white, purple, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,028 meters (0 to 9,934 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Heliotropium horizontale Small • Heliotropium leavenworthii Torr. • Heliotropium polyphyllum var. horizontale (Small) R. W. Long • Tiaridium indicum (L.) Lehm.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Heliotropium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 50 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
H. amplexicaule (Clasping Heliotrope) · H. angiospermum (Butterfly Heliotrope) · H. anomalum (Pacific Heliotrope) · H. anomalum Hook. & Arn. var. argenteum Gray (Polynesian Heliotrope) · H. anomalum var. anomalum (Polynesian Heliotrope) · H. anomalum var. argenteum (Polynesian Heliotrope) · H. arborescens (Common Heliotrope) · H. arborescens L. 'Mini Marine' (Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Alba' (Cherry Pie Plant) · H. arborescens 'Atlantis' (Atlantis Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Blue Wonder' (Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Cherry Pie' (Cherry Pie Heliotrope Heliotropium Arborescens) · H. arborescens 'Fragrance Mix' (Common Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Fragrant Delight' (Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Iowa' (Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Kleha07520' (Heliotrope 'kleha07520') · H. arborescens 'Marine' (Marine Heliotrope) · H. arborescens 'Nagano' (Nagano Heliotrope) · H. confertifolium (Leafy Heliotrope) · H. convolvulaceum (Bindweed Heliotrope) · H. convolvulaceum (Nutt.) Gray var. californicum (Greene) I.M.Johnst. (Phlox Heliotrope) · H. convolvulaceum var. californicum (Phlox Heliotrope) · H. convolvulaceum var. convolvulaceum (Phlox Heliotrope) · H. curassavicum (Cola De Mico) · H. curassavicum var. curassavicum (Salt Heliotrope) · H. curassavicum var. obovatum (Seaside Heliotrope) · H. curassavicum var. oculatum (Seaside Heliotrope) · H. europaeum (European Heliotrope) · H. fruticosum (Key West Heliotrope) · H. glabriusculum (Greeneye Heliotrope) · H. greggii (Fragrant Heliotrope) · H. guanicense (Cotorrilla) · H. indicum (India Heliotrope) · H. lagoense (Antilles Heliotrope) · H. microphyllum (Littleleaf Heliotrope) · H. molle (Soft Heliotrope) · H. peruviana (Cherry Pie) · H. polyphyllum (Many-Leaved Heliotrope) · H. pringlei (Pringle Heliotrope) · H. procumbens (Four-Spike Heliotrope) · H. procumbens var. depressum (Fourspike Heliotrope) · H. procumbens var. procumbens (Fourspike Heliotrope) · H. racemosum (Coastal-Plain Heliotrope) · H. ramosissimum (Wavy Heliotrope) · H. supinum (Dwarf Heliotrope) · H. tenellum (Pasture Heliotrope) · H. ternatum (Bushy Heliotrope) · H. texanum (Texas Heliotrope) · H. torreyi (Jerusalem Artichoke) · H. undulatifolium (Turnsole Heliotrope)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University Herbaria
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- SysTax, Botanische Staatssammlung Munchen
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2654502
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-31638
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13745802
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:116938-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 18825
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 31638
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDBOR0J0E0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TIIN
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 42580
- Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl & Rudolf V. Kamelin "Boraginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 329. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Heliotropium". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 338. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Heliotropium indicum". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 341. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 142.120 meters (466.273 feet), Standard Deviation = 497.260 based on 1,078 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]