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Common Names in Albanian:
Farat e lulediellit
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Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Solsikke, Solsikke
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Annual Sunflower, Common Sunflower, garden sunflower, Hopi Sunflower (Usa), Sunflower, Wild Sunflower
Common Names in Esperanto:
Common Names in Estonian:
Harilik Päevalill, Harilik päevalill, Päevalill
Common Names in Finnish:
Auringon Ruusu, Auringonkukka, Isoauringonkukka
Common Names in French:
Grand Soleil, hélianthe annuel, Soleil, Tournesol
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Common Names in German:
Echte Sonnenblume, Sonnenblume
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Common Names in Irish:
Lus na gréine
Common Names in Italian:
Corona Del Sole, Girasole
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Common Names in Latin:
Oleum Helianthi Annui
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Common Names in Malay:
Pokok Bunga Matahari
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Common Names in Polish:
Slonecznik Roczny, Slonecznik Zwyczajny, Słonecznik zwyczajny
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Common Names in Romanian:
Floarea Soarelui, Ierboaie, Ochiul Soarelui, Patonea, Răsărită, Ruji, Sorină
Common Names in Russian:
Podsolnečnik Odnoletnij, подсолнечник однолетний
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Common Names in Tibetan Standard, Tibetan, Central:
Common Names in Turkish:
Ay çiç, Ayçiçeği, Gün çiç, Güne Bakan
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Common Names in Vietnamese:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Heliantheae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that can be readily recognized due to the association of a receptacular bract or chaff scale with each disk floret in the head . The heads usually include bisexual , actinomorphic disk florets with tubular corollas that have 4 or 5 distal lobes and also peripheral zygomorphic female or sometimes sterile florets with strap-shaped corollas that have 3 or fewer distal teeth. However, the ray flowers are sometimes absent and the heads are then discoid , containing only bisexual florets with tubular corollas. The pappus is absent or more commonly ranges from scales to stiff bristles . -- Gerald Carr.
, (5) 20300(500) cm. Stems erect
or pro-cumbent, usually branched distally. Leaves basal and/or cauline; opposite, or opposite (proximal
) and alternate, or alternate; petiolate
or sessile; blades
usually 3-nerved (1-nerved in H. eggertii, H. smithii, and H. maximiliani), mostly deltate, lance-linear
, lanceolate, lance-ovate, linear
, or ovate
cordate to narrowly cuneate, margins
usually entire or serrate, rarely lobed
, often gland-dotted. Heads usually radiate
in H. radula), borne singly or in ± corymbiform
, or spiciform
arrays. Involucres usually ± hemispheric
, sometimes campanulate
, 540+(200+ in cultivars) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 1140(100+ in cultivars) in 23+ series (subequal
to unequal). Receptacles flat to slightly convex
(conic in H. porteri), paleate (paleae ± conduplicate
, usually rectangular-oblong, usually ± 3-toothed, sometimes entire, apices sometimes reddish or purplish). Ray florets usually 530+(100+ in cultivars), rarely 0, neuter
; corollas usually yellow. Disc florets (15) 30150+(1000+ in cultivars), bisexual
; corollas yellow or reddish (at least distally), tubes
shorter than campanulate throats, lobes
5, triangular (style branches slender, appendages
± attenuate). Cypselae (usually purplish black, sometimes mottled
) ± obpyramidal
, ± compressed
, or ± hairy) ; pappi 0 (H. porteri), or readily falling, of 2(3) usually lanceolate, aristate
, or erose scales
(at the 2 principal angles
, 15 mm) plus 08 usually shorter scales (0.22 mm). x = 17.
Species 52, including 1 hybrid: North America, Mexico; introduced in the Old World.
The identification of sunflower species has long been problematic. C. B . Heiser et al. (1969) felt that the greatest contribution of their sustained efforts to understand sunflower taxonomy was not providing an easy way to identify sunflowers but rather an explanation for why they are so difficult. Taxonomic difficulties are based on a combination of factors , notably developmental and ecologic plasticity, the frequency of interspecific hybridization, and the presence of polyploidy. L. H. Rieseberg (1991) and Rieseberg et al. (1988, 1990) have subsequently documented the presence of species of homoploid hybrid origin to add to the complexity. The keys in this treatment have been modified somewhat with observations of features that require microscopic observation, such as the distribution of glands (sometimes referred to as "resin dots") and the color of anther appendages; they still are based heavily on those of Heiser et al. There will still be specimens, of hybrid origin or growing in unusual conditions or incompletely collected, that defy certain placement into a single species. The taxonomic rank of certain taxa is also problematic, and for the most part the treatment of Heiser et al. has been followed, with relatively few exceptions. With the exception of Helianthus Ã—laetiflorus, which is widespread and commonly encountered away from either parental species, hybrids are not treated as separate entities. Helianthus verticillatus has been verified as a distinct entity , unlikely to be simply a hybrid. Whether H. praetermissus E. Watson, which continues to be known only from a single fragmentary specimen, represents a distinct species or an anomalous collection is still uncertain; it has not been included here.
Species Helianthus annuus
, 100-300 cm. Stems erect
, usually hispid
. Leaves mostly cauline;
mostly alternate; petioles
2-20 cm; blades
lance-ovate to ovate
10-40 × 5-40 cm, bases
cuneate to subcordate
or cordate, margins
usually ± hispid, sometimes gland-dotted
1-9. Peduncles 2-20 cm. Involucres hemispheric
15-40(-200+) mm diam. Phyllaries 20-30(-100+), ovate to lance-ovate,
13-25 × (3-) 5-8 mm, (margins usually ciliate
) apices abruptly
narrowed, long-acuminate, abaxial faces usually hirsute
, usually gland-dotted. Paleae 9-11 mm,
teeth long-acuminate, glabrous or hispid). Ray
(13-) 17-30(-100+) ; laminae
; corollas 5-8 mm (throats
± bulbous at bases), lobes
reddish, sometimes yellow ; anthers
brownish to black, appendages
yellow or dark (style branches yellow) . Cypselae (3-) 4-5(-15) mm,
glabrate ; pappi of 2 lanceolate scales
2-3.5 mm plus 0-4 obtuse
scales 0.5-1 mm. 2n = 34.
Despite its considerable variability, attempts have failed to produce a widely adopted infraspecific system of classification. Forms with red-colored ray laminae, known from cultivation and occasionally seen escaped, trace their ancestry to a single original mutant plant. It hybridizes with many of the other annual species .
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 4-6' tall.
Open areas; 0-3000 m
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,392 meters (0 to 11,129 feet).
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: Not Applicable (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Link, 1829
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Link, 1829
- Superorder: Asteranae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
H. annuus lenticularis (Douglas Ex Lindley) Cockerell • H. annuus texanus Heiser • H. annuus var. lenticularis (Douglas Ex Lindley) Steyermark • H. annuus var. macrocarpus (De Candolle) Cockerell • H. aridus Rydberg • H. jaegeri Heiser • H. lenticularis Douglas Ex Lindley • H. macrocarpus de Candolle • Helianthus annuus jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser • Helianthus annuus lenticularis (Dougl. Ex Lindl.) Cockerell • Helianthus annuus texanus Heiser • Helianthus annuus var. lenticularis (Dougl. Ex Lindl.) Steyermark • Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus (Dc.) Cockerell • Helianthus annuus var. texanus (Heiser) Shinners • Helianthus aridus Rydb. • Helianthus lenticularis Dougl. Ex Lindl.
Members of the genus Helianthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 225 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
H. agrestis (Southeastern Sunflower) · H. alexidis (Alex Sunflower) · H. ambiguus (Ambiguous Sunflower) · H. angustifolius (Narrow-Leaf Sunflower) · H. angustifolius var. First Light (Narrow-Leaf Sunflower) · H. angustifolius 'Gold Lace' (Narrow-Leaved Sunflower) · H. angustifolius 'Mellow Yellow' (Narrow-Leaved Sunflower) · H. annus 'Honey Bear' (Sunflower) · H. annuus (Annual Sunflower) · H. annuus annuus (Common Sunflower) · H. annuus lenticularis (Wild Sunflower) · H. annuus L. 'Floristan' (Sunflower) · H. annuus var. pallescens (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Autumn Beauty' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'B0524lm' (Sunflower 'b0524lm') · H. annuus 'Big Smile' (Big Smile Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Bismarkianus' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Bt0623' (Sunflower 'bt0623') · H. annuus 'Bt0624' (Sunflower 'bt0624') · H. annuus 'Bt530' (Sunflower 'bt530') · H. annuus 'Cappuccino' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Chianti' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Claret' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Cyclops' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Double Dandy' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Double Quick Orange' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Early Russian' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Earthwalker' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Ebony & Gold' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Evening Sun' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'F0143lm' (Sunflower 'f0143lm') · H. annuus 'Firecracker' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Florenza' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Fr83313' (Sunflower 'fr83313') · H. annuus 'Fr83555' (Sunflower 'fr83555') · H. annuus 'Full Sun Improved' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Gelber Diskus' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Giant Sungold' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Goldburst' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Henry Wilde' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Holiday' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Ib770dmr' (Sunflower 'ib770dmr') · H. annuus 'Ib920' (Sunflower 'ib920') · H. annuus 'Ikarus' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Incredible' (Dwarf Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Infrared Mix' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Ir127dmr' (Sunflower 'ir127dmr') · H. annuus 'Ir79dmr' (Sunflower 'ir79dmr') · H. annuus 'Italian White' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Jade' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Jerusalem Gold' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Kong' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Lemon Sorbet' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Lg114olb' (Sunflower 'lg114olb') · H. annuus 'Lg1234olb' (Sunflower 'lg1234olb') · H. annuus 'Lgrol24i' (Sunflower 'lgrol64i') · H. annuus 'Lyng's California Greystripe' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Magic Roundabout' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Mammoth' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Mammoth Grey Stripe' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Maya' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Moonbright' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Moonshadow' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Moonwalker' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Moulin Rouge' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Music Box' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'N0626lg' (Sunflower 'n0626lg') · H. annuus 'Orange Sun' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Pacino' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Pastiche' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Pr64g46' (Sunflower 'pr64g46') · H. annuus 'Pr64h34' (Sunflower 'pr64h34') · H. annuus 'Pro Cut Bicolor' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Pro Cut Lemon' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Pro Cut Orange' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Pro Cut Peach' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Razzmatazz' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Red Sun' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Ring of Fire' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Rt0567' (Sunflower 'rt0657') · H. annuus 'Rt0656' (Sunflower 'rt0656') · H. annuus 'Ruby Eclipse' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Shine' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Skyscraper' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sonja' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Soraya' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sparky' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Starburst Aura' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Starburst Lemon Aura' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Starburst Panache' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Stella Gold' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Strawberry Blonde' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sunbeam' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sunbright' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sunbright Supreme' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sundance Kid' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sundown' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sunny' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sunrich Gold' (Sunflower) · H. annuus 'Sunrich Lemon' (Sunflower)
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- ... Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana, by Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1921. url p. 431.
- A Yosemite flora; a descriptive account of the ferns and flowering plants, including the trees, of the Yosemite National Park; with simple keys for their identification. .. by Harvey Monroe Hall and Carlotta Case Hall. San Francisco, Elder, 1912. url p. 256.
- A biological survey of the sand dune region on the south shore of Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Lansing, Mich.: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford co., state printers, 1911. url p. 117, p. 330.
- A botany for India, by P. F. Fyson. London, The Christian Literature Society for Indian (Madras Branch)1912. url p. 335.
- A determination of the economic status of the western meadow-lark (Sturnella neglecta) in California, by Harold Child Bryant. Berkeley, University of California press,  url p. 426.
- A dictionary of American plant names / compiled by Willard N. Clute. Joliet, Ill.: W.N. Clute, 1923. url p. 83.
- A guide to the wild flowers east of the Mississippi and north of Virginia / by Norman Taylor. New York: Greenberg, 1928. url p. 294.
- A history of the game birds, wild-fowl and shore birds of Massachusetts and adjacent states: including those used for food which have disappeared since the settlement of the country, and those which are now hunted for food or sport, with observations on their former abundance and recent decre Boston: Wright & Potter printing company, state printers, 1912. url p. 583, p. 583.
- A little book of annuals, New York, The A. T. De La Mare company, inc., 1922. url p. 85.
- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 1204, p. 996.
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- A manual of agricultural chemistry, by Herbert Ingle. With 16 illustrations. London, Scott, Greenwood & son, 1913. url p. 230, p. 243.
- A manual of organic materia medica and pharmacognosy; an introduction to the study of the vegetable kingdom and the vegetable and animal drugs (with syllabus of inorganic remedial agents) comprising the botanical and physical characteristics, source, con Philadelphia, Blakiston url p. 436, p. 592.
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- A naturalist in Western China: with vasculum, camera, and gun, being some account of eleven year's travel, exploration, and observation in the more remote parts of the flowery kingdom; with an introduction by Charles Sprague Sargent. London, Methuen url p. 61.
- A naturalist in western China, with vasculum, camera, and gun; being some account of eleven years' travel, exploration, and observation in the more remote parts of the Flowery kingdom, by Ernest Henry Wilson...with an introduction by Charles Sprague Sargent...With one hundred and one full-page illustrations and a map. London, Methuen & co., ltd. url p. 216, p. 61.
- A practical course in botany, with especial reference to its bearings on agriculture, economics, and sanitation, by E.F. Andrews. .. with editorial revision by Francis E. Lloyd. .. Cincinnati [etc.]: American book company, [c1911] url p. 210.
- A practical course in botany: with especial reference to its bearings on agriculture, economics, and sanitation / by E. F. Andrews; with editorial revision by Francis E. Lloyd. New York: American Book Company, c1911. url p. 210.
- A preliminary classification of the plant communities of northeastern Montana / Robert L. DeVelice [et al.]. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c1991. url , , , , .
- A preliminary list of the Uredinales of California, by Walter C. Blasdale. Berkeley: University of California press, 1919. url p. 137.
- A provisional list of the parasitic fungi of Wisconsin. Madison, 1914 url p. 850, p. 943.
- A study of some characteristics of vegetable oils, by James B. McNair. 9 1930 Chicago, 1930. url p. 50, p. 56, p. 59, p. 63.
- A text-book of botany, by Dr. Eduard Strasburger. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck, Ludwig Jost [and] Dr. George Karsten. LondonMacmillan1912 url p. 261.
- A text-book of mycology and plant pathology, by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., [c1917] url p. 465.
- Aeration and air-content; the role of oxygen in root activity, by Frederic E. Clements. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1921. url p. 118, p. 121, p. 16, p. 81, p. 83, p. 85, p. 90.
- Aluminum as a factor in soil acidity, Baltimore, 1920 url p. 160.
- American honey plants; together with those which are of special value to the beekeeper as sources of pollen. Hamilton, Ill., American Bee Journal, 1920. url p. 272, p. 57.
- Ames forester. .. Ames, Ia., The Forestry club of the Iowa state college, 1913- url p. 285.
- An Introduction to the chemistry of plant products / by Paul Haas, . .. and TG. Hill, . .. Vol. 2: Metabolic processes. London; Longman's, Green and co, 1929. url p. 14, p. 8.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 477, p. 478.
- An introduction to bacterial diseases of plants / by Erwin F. Smith. London: W.B. Saunders Co., 1920. url , p. 185, p. 195, p. 49.
- An introduction to the chemistry of plant products by Paul Haas and T. G. Hill. London, Longmans, Green, 1928-1929. url p. 310, p. 38, p. 40.
- Animal aggregations, a study in general sociology. / by W. C. Allee. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1931. url p. 77.
- Annals of applied biology. [Wellesbourne, Warwick, etc.]Association of Applied Biologists [etc.] url p. 135, p. 218, p. 229, p. 231.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 724.
- Annual and biennial garden plants, their value and uses: with full instructions for their cultivation, by A.E. Speer. .. London, J. Murray, 1911. url p. 166.
- Annual report of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture. Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co., state printers, 1916-1918. url p. 202.
- Annuals & biennials, the best annual and biennial plants and their uses in the garden, London, C. Scribner's sons url .
- Annuals hardy and half hardy. New York, Frederick A. Stokes Co., [1914?] url , p. 114, p. 49.
- Applied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for the those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants. New York, Wiley url p. 259, p. 725.
- Applied and economic botany, especially adapted for the use of students in technical schools, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, and also as a book of reference for chemists, food analysts and students engaged in by Henry Kraemer. .. illustrated with 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures. Philadelphia, The author[c1914] url p. 259, p. 259, p. 725.
- Applied economic botany based upon actual agricultural and gardening projects, by Melville Thurston Cook; 142 illustrations. Philadelphia, Lippincott, [c1919] url p. 216.
- Applied economic botany, based upon actual agricultural and gardening projects. Philadelphia, Lippincott url p. 216.
- Beautiful flowers and how to grow them, by Horace J. Wright & Walter P. Wright. Illustrated with 32 plates in full colours from paintings by Beatrice Parsons, Eleanor Fortesque Brickdale, Hugh L. Norris, Margaret Waterfield, A. Fairfax Muck 1922 Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, ltd., 1922. url figure , p. 115.
- Beekeeping; a discussion of the life of the honeybee and of the production of honey, by Everett Franklin Phillips. London, Macmillan & Co., 1918. url p. 391.
- Bibliographical contributions from the Lloyd library, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, Ohio, Lloyd Library. url p. 462, p. 485, p. 56.
- Biodiversity Data Sourcebook. WCMC Biodiversity Series 1 World Conservation Press url p. 40.
- Biodiversity and representativeness of research natural areas on national wildlife refuges in Montana, designated areas within Benton Lake, Charles M. Russell, Lake Mason, Medicine Lake, and Red Rock final report / submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; prepared by Stephen V. Cooper and Bonnie L. Heidel. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c1999 url , , p. 37.
- Biological effects of radiation; mechanism and measurement of radiation, applications in biology, photochemical reactions, effects of radiant energy on organisms and organic products. Edited by Benjamin M. Duggar. With the cooperation of Janet Howell Clark, Kenneth S. Cole, Farrington Daniels [and others] New York andMcGraw-Hill Book Co., 1936. url p. 1064, p. 1071, p. 734, p. 752, p. 777, p. 783, p. 833, p. 983.
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- Biology code of the Chemical-Biological Coordination Center... Washington, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, 1960. url p. 120.
- Biology of deserts: the proceedings of a symposium on the biology of hot and cold deserts organized by the Institute of Biology / edited by J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson. London: Institute of Biology; 1954. url p. 72.
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- Botanical Museum leaflets, Harvard University. 16 1953-1954 Cambridge, Mass.: Botanical Museum, Harvard University, 1932- url p. 134, p. 164, p. 175, p. 178.
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- Botany for high schhools / by George Francis Atkinson. New York: H. Holt, 1912. url p. 166, p. 534.
- Botany for secondary schools; a guide to the knowledge of the vegetation of the neighborhood, by L. H. Bailey. New York, Macmillan, 1920. url p. 439.
- Botany of the living plant, by F. O. Bower. London, Macmillan and Co., limited, 1919. url p. 126, p. 270, p. 270.
- Botany of the living plant, by F.O. Bower. In the third edition he was assisted by J.M.F. Drummond, and George Bond, in this fourth edition by C.W. Wardlaw. London, Macmillan and Co., ltd., 1947. url p. 306.
- Botany of the living plant. London, Macmillan, 1919. url p. 126, p. 270.
- Botany, developmental and descriptive. Philadelphia, Lea, 1922. url p. 222.
- Breviora. 1973 Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, [1952- url p. 11, p. 13, figure 2, page 9.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658020
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-530
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:295073-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 27923
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 36616
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST4N030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HELE5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 42205
- Edward E. Schilling "Helianthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 51, 136, 141, 148, 149, 157, 170. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 210.880 meters (691.864 feet), Standard Deviation = 319.480 based on 2,849 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]