Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in English:
'awapuhi-Ke'oke'o, Butterfly Ginger, Butterfly Ginger Lily, Butterfly Lily, Butterfly-Ginger, Butterfly-Lily, Cinnamon-Jasmine, Garland Flower, Garland Lily, Garland-Flower, Ginger Lily, Ginger-Lily, Gingerlily, Whi, White Garland-Lily, White Ginger, White Ginger-Lily, White-Ginger
Common Names in Hawaiian:
, rarely epiphytic, aromatic
, with fleshy
or non-tuberous rhizomes, often with tuber-bearing roots
. Stems usually short, replaced by pseudostems formed by leaf sheaths
. Leaves distichous, simple
, those toward base
of plant usually bladeless and reduced to sheaths; leaf sheath open; ligule usually present; petiole
present or not, located between leaf blade and sheath, cushionlike in Zingiber; leaf blade suborbicular
or lanceolate to narrowly strap-shaped
, rolled longitudinally in bud, glabrous
veins usually numerous
, pinnate, parallel, margin
entire. Inflorescence terminal
on pseudostems or on separate, short, sheath-covered shoots
arising from rhizomes, cylindric
, sometimes globose
to dense, few to many flowered, sometimes with bracteolate
cincinni in bract axils and then a thyrse
, sometimes a raceme
or spike; bracts and bracteoles present, often conspicuous
. Flowers bisexual
, zygomorphic. Calyx usually tubular
, thin, split on 1 side, sometimes spathelike, apex 3-toothed or -lobed. Corolla proximally tubular, distally 3-lobed; lobes
varying in size and shape
. Stamens or staminodes 6, in 2 whorls. Lateral 2 staminodes of outer whorl petaloid, or forming small teeth at base of labellum, or adnate
to labellum, or absent. Median
staminode of outer whorl always reduced. Labellum formed from lateral 2 staminodes of inner whorl. Fertile
stamen median, of inner whorl; filament
long or short; anther
locules 2, introrse
, dehiscing by slits or occasionally pores
often extended basally into spurs and/or apically into a crest
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed initially, 1- or 3-loculed when mature
; ovules ± numerous per locule; placentation parietal
, basal, or axile
. Developed style 1, very thin, placed in a furrow in filament and between anther locules; stigma appearing above anther, funnelform
, ± wet, margin often ciliate
. Stylodes 2, reduced to nectaries at apex of ovary. Fruit a capsule, fleshy or dry, dehiscent
or indehiscent, sometimes berrylike. Seeds few to many, arillate
; aril often lobed
About 50 genera and 1300 species: pantropical with center of diversity in S and SE Asia, some species in America and subtropical and warm-temperate Asia; 20 genera (one endemic) and 216 species (141 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
Pseudostems well -developed, 1--3 m.
of pseudostem, dense, conelike [lax
]; bracts of main axis crowded [not crowded], [2.5--]4--6[--7] cm, ovate
to lanceolate [or almost circular]; cincinni sessile, [1--]2--3[--6]-flowered, enclosed in bracts; bracteoles small, inconspicuous, hidden by bracts. Flowers: calyx cylindric
, 3-toothed or -lobed, split down
one side [not split]; corolla tube
linear, tubular-incurved, enclosing style; anther
long-exserted, not spurred
staminodes large, petal-like, lip oblong
, 2-lobed. Fruits capsule, globose
Species ca. 50: introduced ; North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Australia; native , Asia and Madagascar.
Species Hedychium coronarium
or narrowly elliptic
, 28--48 ´ 4--7
cm. Inflorescences erect
, 15--19 ´ 12--17 cm; bracts of main
axis green; proximal
, 4--5.5 ´ 2--4.5
cm, apex obtuse
; distal bracts lance-oblong or ovate,
4--6 ´ 1--2.5 cm, apex rounded
or apiculate. Flowers: perianth
and staminodes white. [source]
Naturalized populations have been reported several times from southern Louisiana, but the specimens I have seen are sterile and cannot be identified with certainty. There is also an old report from near Brunswick, Georgia (J. K . Small 1933, unpublished ms .), but I have seen no specimens from the state. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 4-6' tall.
Swamps , shores of lakes and streams ; 0--50 m. Introduced .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,028 meters (0 to 9,934 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Grisebach, 1854
- Martinov, 1820, nom. cons.
- Ginger Family
- Subfamily: Zingiberoideae ()
- Family: Zingiberaceae () - Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - Ginger Family
- Order: Zingiberales () - Grisebach, 1854
- Superorder: Zingiberanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Hedychium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 27 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
H. aurantiacum (Ginger Lily) · H. coccineum (Orange Bottlebrush Ginger) · H. coccineum 'Tara' (Orange Bottlebrush Ginger) · H. coronarium ('awapuhi-Ke'oke'o) · H. cylindricum (Butterfly Ginger) · H. densiflorum 'Assam Orange' (Hardy Ginger Lily) · H. densiflorum 'Stephen' (Hardy Ginger Lily) · H. ellipticum (Hedychium) · H. flavescens (Awapuhi Melemele) · H. forrestii (Ginger Lily) · H. gardnerianum (Kahila Garland-Lily) · H. gardnerianum 'Kahili Fiesta' (Kahili Ginger) · H. greenii (Red Butterfly Ginger) · H. spicatum (Spiked Ginger Lily) · H. thyrsiforme (Frilly White Ginger) · H. x kewense (Butterfly Ginger) · H. × moorei 'Tara' (Ginger Lily 'tara') · H. 'Anne S. Bishop' (Flowering Ginger) · H. 'Ayo' (Hardy Ginger) · H. 'Beni-Oiran' (Ginger) · H. 'Dr. Moy' (Hardy Ginger Lily) · H. 'Elizabeth' (Hardy Ginger Lily) · H. 'Hawaiian Pink' (Hedychium Hybrid) · H. 'Kinkaku' (Butterfly Ginger) · H. 'Luna Moth' (Hedychium Hybrid) · H. 'Pink Flame' (Hedychium Hybrid) · H. 'Pink V' (Hedychium Hybrid)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 18, 2007:
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Ilha Solteira, Herbario
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662173
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-248115
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13755786
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:796836-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 18576
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42396
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 796836-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMZIN04010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: HECO11
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 41911
- Delin Wu & Kai Larsen "Zingiberaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 322. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Hedychium". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Hedychium coronarium". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 512.430 meters (1,681.201 feet), Standard Deviation = 800.690 based on 270 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]