or small trees
, biennial, or perennial
. Stems ascending
, or twining
. Leaves opposite, less often alternate or whorled
; stipules absent. Inflorescences simple or complex
cymes, sometimes reduced to sessile clusters
, often in a thyrse
or 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual
, rarely unisexual
, 4 or 5 (or 6-8) [-12]-merous. Calyx tubular
, obconic, campanulate
, or rotate, lobes
joined at least basally. Corolla tubular, obconic, salverform
, campanulate, or rotate, rarely with basal spurs; lobes overlapping to right
or rarely valvate
in bud; plicae (extensions
of the corolla tube
between the lobes) present or absent. Stamens inserted
on corolla tube or occasionally at sinus
between corolla lobes, alternate with lobes; anthers
, 2-locular. Nectaries absent or attached to ovary base or corolla. Ovary usually 1-locular at least apically, rarely 2-locular due to intrusion of a lamellate
placenta into locular
. Fruit a 2-valved capsule, rarely a berry. Seeds many or rarely few, small; endosperm abundant [scant in saprophytic
About 80 genera and 700 species: worldwide; 20 genera and 419 species in China, of which two genera and 251 species are endemic.
. Sometimes with elongated rhizomes. Leaves opposite [or whorled
]. Inflorescences terminal
, in clusters
or sometimes in lax
panicles of cymes. Terminal clusters umbel-like, subtended by a whorl of 4 leaves, often on short axillary branches. Flowers 4merous. Calyx lobed
nearly to base
. Corolla campanulate
, lobed to below middle
, with spurs near base of corolla tube
. Stamens inserted
on corolla tube. Ovary 1celled. Style very short. Stigma 2lobed. Capsules ovoid
, 2valved, 1.1-1.3 cm, many seeded. Seeds ellipsoid
to subglobose; seed coat
About 100 species: mainly in America, a few species in Asia and Europe; two species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Gentianales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A tentatively accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Halenia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 10, p. 15, p. 7, p. 7, p. 8, p. 8, p. 9.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 245.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 43 1916 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 666.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 260, p. 536, p. 653, p. 682, p. IX.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 466, p. 469.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 537.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 110.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url .
- Illustrations of Indian botany: or figures illustrative of each of the natural orders of Indian plants, described in the author's prodromus florae peninsulae Indiae orientalis /by Robert Wight. 2 1850 Madras: published by J. B. Pharoah for the author, 1840-1850. url p. 174.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 7 1912-1913 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 16, p. 165, p. 27, p. 296, p. 311, p. 68, p. 74, p. 81.
- Plants of the Punjab: a descriptive key to the flora of the Punjab, North-west Frontier Province, and Kashmir / by C.J. Bamber. Lahore: Supt. Govt. Printing, Punjab, 1916. url p. 166.
- Plants of the Punjab; a descriptive key to the flora of the Punjab, North-west Frontier Province and Kashmir. LahorePrinted by The Superintendent Government Printing1916 url p. 166.
- Spicilegium Neilgherrense, or, a selection of Neilgherry plants: drawn and coloured from nature, with brief descriptions of each; some general remarks on the geography and affinities of natural families of plants, and occasional notices of their economical properties and uses /by Robert Wight. 2 1851 Madras: the author, -1851. url p. 59.
- The English rock-garden, by Reginald Farrer. London, Jack, 1919. url p. 407.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 59.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url , p. 209, p. 496.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 26 1889-90 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 141, p. 209, p. 448, p. 575, p. 690.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. 4 1885 London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 130, p. 130, p. 617.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- Ho Ting-nung; Liu Shang-wu, & Wu Ching-ju in Ho Ting-nung, ed. 1988. Gentianaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 62: 1-411.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 05, 2007:
- Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University Herbaria
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3427284
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15496237
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:369465-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 369465-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 743314
- Ting-nung Ho & James S. Pringle "Gentianaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Ting-nung Ho & James S. Pringle "Halenia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 100. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]