, rarely subshrubs
. Stems and branches usually swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, decussate, rarely alternate or verticillate
, entire, usually connate
; stipules scarious
, or often absent. Inflorescence of cymes or cymose
panicles, rarely flowers solitary or few in racemes
, capitula, pseudoverticillasters, or umbels. Flowers actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
, occasionally cleistogamous
. Sepals (4 or) 5, free
, imbricate, or connate into a tube
, leaflike or scarious, persistent
, sometimes bracteate
below calyx. Petals (4 or) 5, rarely absent, free, often comprising claw
and limb; limb entire or split, usually with coronal scales
at juncture of claw and limb. Stamens (2--) 5--10, in 1 or 2 series. Pistil 1; carpels 2--5, united
into a compound
ovary. Ovary superior, 1-loculed or basally imperfectly 2--5-loculed. Gynophore
present or absent. Placentation free, central, rarely basal; ovules (1 or) few or numerous
, campylotropous. Styles (1 or) 2--5, sometimes united at base. Fruit usually a capsule, with pericarp crustaceous
, scarious, or papery
, dehiscing by teeth or valves
1 or 2 Ã— as many as styles, rarely berrylike with irregular dehiscence or an achene. Seeds 1 to numerous, reniform
, or rarely dorsiventrally compressed
, abaxially grooved
, or sharply pointed
, rarely fimbriate-pectinate; testa granular
, rarely smooth
; embryo strongly curved
and surrounding perisperm
or straight but eccentric
; perisperm mealy.
Between 75 and 80 genera and ca. 2000 species: widespread but mainly of temperate or warm-temperate occurrence in the N hemisphere, with principal centers of distribution in the Mediterranean region and W Asia to W China and the Himalayas, fewer species in Africa S of the Sahara, America, and Oceania; 30 genera (two endemic) and 390 species (193 endemic) in China.
Arenaria, Silene, and Stellaria contain over half the species in the family in China. They are mostly concentrated in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau , and are especially rich from the Hengduan Mountains to the Himalayas. The main uses of this family are medicinal and ornamental . Dianthus superbus, Pseudostellaria heterophylla, Stellaria dichotoma var. lanceolata, and Vaccaria hispanica are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine . Some species of Arenaria, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Psammosilene, and Silene are used as medicinal herbs among the people or are habitually used in local Chinese medicine. Many species of Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Saponaria, and Silene are grown as ornamentals. Atocion armeria (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ( Silene armeria Linnaeus), native to Russia and Europe, is also cultivated in China. It differs from Silene in having a corymbose inflorescence and obscure calyx veins. Wu Cheng-yih, Ke Ping, Zhou Li-hua, Tang Chang-lin & Lu De-quan. 1996. Caryophyllaceae. In: Tang Chang-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 47â€“449.
. Taproots slender to stout, sometimes absent; perennials often with stout, branched caudices, some with adventitious roots
stems or elongating rhizomes. Stems erect
, ± sprawling
, or less often decumbent or prostrate
, usually branched, terete
. Leaves briefly connate
proximally, sessile; blade
1- or 3-5-veined, linear
, apex rounded
to acuminate. Inflorescences dichasial cymes or thyrses
in G. oldhamiana) ; bracts paired
, distal ones smaller, herbaceous with scarious
bracteoles absent. Pedicels erect in fruit. Flowers: sepals connate proximally into cup
, 1-5 mm, cup green and white, 5-veined, not winged
, obconic to campanulate
, terete to 5-angled, commissures
between sepals veinless, broad, scarious; lobes
green at least along midrib
, usually ovate to elliptic
, equaling or longer
than cup, margins white, scarious, apex rounded to obtuse, sometimes mucronate
; petals 5, white, pink, or rose-purple, claw
poorly differentiated, auricles
absent, coronal appendages
absent; blade apex entire or shallowly emarginate
to 2-fid, nectaries at filament
; stamens 10, arising with petals from low nectariferous
disc; filaments distinct
nearly to base; staminodes absent; ovary 1-locular; styles 2(-3), clavate
, 1.2-2.5 mm, glabrous
proximally; stigmas 2(-3), subterminal
(30Ã—). Capsules globose
or ellipsoid-ovoid, opening by 4(-6) slightly distally recurving valves
; carpophore absent. Seeds 4-36, brown to black, reniform
to snail-shell-shaped, laterally compressed
absent, appendages absent; embryo peripheral, curved
. x = 17, 12 (Eurasia
), 18 (Eurasia) ; aneuploidy occasional.
Species ca. 150: introduced ; temperate Eurasia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Australia; introduced in South America.
Gypsophila species are widely grown as ornamentals . In addition to those treated below, other European and Asiatic species have appeared sporadically in disturbed habitats in the flora area, sometimes remote from any site where likely to have been planted, but have not become established . Gypsophila pilosa Hudson [G. porrigens (Linnaeus) Boissier], which differs from G. elegans in its stems villous or hispid proximal to the inflorescence, slender pedicels that persist after the flowers and fruits have fallen, and consistently pink petals, has been found at waste-disposal sites in Maryland, New York, and Oregon. Gypsophila repens Linnaeus, a rhizomatous perennial species with prostrate to decumbent primary stems and more or less erect flowering branches to 3 dm, similar to G. elegans in floral characters, has been found escaped from cultivation in British Columbia and Maine. Gypsophila oldhamiana F. A. W. Miquel was found in a field in Alabama in 1969 [Rebois 049 (AUA) ]. It has pink petals and differs from other species described here in its densely corymboid to subcapitate inflorescences. Additional species are cultivated in the flora area.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 382 meters (1,252 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Caryophyllaceae () - Durande, 1782 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - cariophyllacées, pinks
- Suborder: Caryophyllineae () -
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A tentatively accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Gypsophila
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 38 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. acorzonerifolia (Babysbreath) · G. acutifolia (Sharp-Leaf Baby's-Breath) · G. aretioides (Gypsophila) · G. arrostii (Arrost's Babysbreath) · G. briquetiana (Babys Breath) · G. cerastioides (Baby's Breath) · G. cerastoides (Babys Breath) · G. elegans (Babys Breath) · G. elegans 'Carminea' (Babys Breath) · G. elegans 'Giant White' (Babys Breath) · G. elegans 'Snow Fountain' (Babys Breath) · G. fastigiata 'Silverstar' (Babys Breath) · G. muralis (Annual Gypsophila) · G. muralis 'Garden Bride' (Annual Gypsophila) · G. muralis 'Gypsy Deep Rose' (Annual Gypsophila) · G. oldhamiana (Oldham's Babysbreath) · G. paniculata (Baby's Breath) · G. paniculata Snowflake (Baby's Breath) · G. paniculata var. Paniculata (Baby's Breath) · G. paniculata 'Bristol Fairy' (Bristol Fairy Baby's Breath) · G. paniculata 'Compacta Plena' (Babys Breath) · G. paniculata 'Festival Star' (Babys Breath) · G. paniculata 'Pink Star' (Babys Breath) · G. paniculata 'Rumba' (Baby's Breath 'rumba') · G. paniculata 'Viette's Dwarf' (Babys Breath) · G. perfoliata (Perfoliate Baby's-Breath) · G. perfoliata var. latifolia (Perfoliate Babysbreath) · G. perfoliata var. perfoliata (Perfoliate Babysbreath) · G. petraea (Babys Breath) · G. pilosa (Applecactus) · G. repens (Creeping Babysbreath) · G. repens 'Alba' (Creeping Baby's Breath) · G. repens 'Rosea' (Creeping Baby's Breath) · G. scorzonerifolia (Baby's Breath) · G. stevenii (Steven's Babysbreath) · G. tenuifolia (Babys Breath) · G. violacea (Gypsophila) · G. 'Perfecta' (Babys Breath)
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- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 248.
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- Favourite flowers of garden and greenhouse /by Edward Step. ..; the cultural directions edited by William Watson. ..; illustrated with three hundred and sixteen coloured plates, selected and arranged by D. Bois. 1 1896 London and New York: Frederick Warne & co., 1896-97. url p. 72.
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- Ground beetles (Carabidae) of Fennoscandia: a zoogeographic study / by Carl H. Lindroth; Joachim Adis, scientific editor. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, 1989- url p. 265.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 150.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url .
- Handbook of hardy herbaceous and alpine flowers. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1871. url p. 73.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 73, p. 779.
- Journal and proceedings of the Hamilton Association. [Hamilton, Ont.]: Printed for the Hamilton Association by the Spector Printing Co., -1899. url p. 47.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 323, p. 325, p. 327, p. 84.
- List of herbaceous perennials tested in the arboretum and botanic garden: central experimental farm, Ottawa, Canada, with descriptions of flowers, and other notes by W. T. Macoun. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1908. url p. 46.
- List of rare, threatened and endemic plants in Europe (1982 edition) Council of Europe url p. 34.
- Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. Hobart, Tasmania, The Society. url p. 31.
- Plant hybridization before Mendel, by H.F. Roberts. .. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1929. url p. 53.
- Plant names, by T. S. Lindsay. London, Macmillan, 1923. url p. 18.
- Plant sociology; the study of plant communities; authorized English translation of Pflanzensoziologie, by Dr. J. Braun-Blanquet. Translated, revised and edited by George D. Fuller and Henry S. Conard. New York and London, McGraw-Hill book company, inc., 1932. url p. 186, p. 420.
- Plants and their uses; an introduction to botany, New York, H. Holt and Company, 1913. url .
- The English flower garden and home grounds; design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture, by W. Robinson. .. Illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1900. url p. 580.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 96.
- The continental element in the flora of south Sweden by Rikard Sterner. Stockholm: Centraltryckeriet, 1922. url p. 300, p. 327, p. 328, p. 402, p. 428, p. 439.
- The illustrated dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists. Ed. by George Nicholson. Assisted by Professor J. W. H. Trail and J. Garrett. London: L. U. Gill, -89. url p. 106.
- The natural history of the Tineina. .. By H. T. Stainton, assisted by Professor Zeller and J. W. Douglas. London, J. Van Voorst; [etc., etc.]1855-73. url p. 221.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd series: Botany 5 1896 London. url p. 138, p. 139, p. 476.
- Barkoudah, Y. I. 1962. A revision of Gypsophila, Bolanthus, Ankyropetalum and Phryna. Wentia 9: 1-203.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 28, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 5 providers.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland: Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- GBIF-Sweden: Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN)
- GBIF-Sweden: Plants (GBIF-SE:Artdatabanken)
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS: National System of Proetcted Areas
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences: Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility: Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5872690
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13527330
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:154462-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 743122
- Dequan Lu, Zhengyi Wu, Lihua Zhou, Shilong Chen, Michael G. Gilbert, Magnus Lidén, John McNeill, John K. Morton, Bengt Oxelman, Richard K. Rabeler, Mats Thulin, Nicholas J. Turland & Warren L. Wagner "Caryophyllaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James S. Pringle "Gypsophila". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 499.080 based on 12,305 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]