The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Senecioneae are a tribe of closely related genera that can be recognized most readily by the nature of the pappus and the involucral bracts or phyllaries. The phyllaries are basically in one well developed, often partially or wholly connate series of equal length that closely envelope the head . Frequently there are a few, very much smaller and mostly randomly distributed, often necrotic-tipped bracts near the base of the main series. The pappus is of fine, soft, often pure white capillary hairs . Heads may be either discoid or radiate . -- Gerald Carr.
], 20-100[300+] cm (± velutinous
often purplish). Stems usually 1, weakly erect
, or clambering
(branched). Leaves [basal and/or] cauline; alternate; petiolate
sometimes expanded, weakly clasping
) or sessile; blades
pinnately nerved, ovate
or lanceolate to linear
[entire or subentire
[coarsely pinnate], faces
velutinous to villous [glabrous, hispid, puberulent]. Heads discoid
, usually in corymbiform
arrays, sometimes borne singly. Calyculi of 3-8+ bractlets
. Involucres cylindric
], [3-]8-12[-15+] mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
,  ± 13 in (1-) 2+ series, erect (reflexed
in fruit), distinct
(margins interlocking), linear, subequal
, margins scarious
. Receptacles flat, foveolate (knobby in fruit), epaleate. Ray florets 0. Disc florets [20-]30-80+, bisexual
; corollas yellow or orange to brick-red [purplish, ochroleucous
, or white], tubes
5, erect or reflexed, deltate to lanceolate; style branches stigmatic
in 2 lines
, apices with (orange or reddish) ± filiform
, 1-2 mm). Cypselae ± columnar
, 5-10-angled or -ribbed, glabrous [hairy
]; pappi persistent or fragile, of 60-80+, white, smooth
. x = 10.
Species ca. 40: introduced ; tropical Asia, Africa (including Madagascar), sw Pacific Islands, Australia.
Some species of Gynura are important in the horticultural trade; abundant literature is accessible through gardening compendia.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Gynura
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- The Philippine journal of science. 15 1919 Manila. url p. 260.
- Cronquist, A. 1978c. Gynura. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Ser. 2, part 10, pp. 150-151.
- Davis, F. G. 1981. The genus Gynura (Compositae) in Malesia and Australia. Kew Bull. 35: 711-734.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5971227
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15141486
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3072232