Common Names in English:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, biennials, perennials
, or subshrubs
, 15-250+ cm (taprooted, rhizomatous
in G. oölepis). Stems (1-6+) usually erect
, sometimes ascending
or branched, glabrous
, often gland-dotted and/or resinous
. Leaves basal and cauline or mostly cauline; alternate; petiolate
) or sessile (distal) ; cauline blades 1-nerved, oblong
, or spatulate
to triangular, lanceolate, or linear
usually serrate to dentate
, sometimes entire, crenate
, or pinnatifid
(especially proximal), faces
usually glabrous and gland-dotted, sometimes hirsutulous
, hirtellous, puberulous
, or stipitate-glandular
. Heads radiate
, in corymbiform
arrays or borne singly. Involucres usually globose
or broadly urceolate
, sometimes campanulate
to obconic, 5-25+ mm diam. (excluding phyllary
apices). Phyllaries (persistent
) 25-100+ in (3-) 4-9+ series, 1-nerved or obscurely so (± flat, proximally and/or medially thickened), mostly filiform
, linear, or lanceolate, usually unequal, sometimes subequal
, bases usually ± chartaceous
(apices ± herbaceous, looped, hooked
, recurved, straight, or incurved
faces usually glabrous and ± resinous. Receptacles flat or convex
, ± pitted
(pits sometimes flanked by membranous or setiform
), epaleate. Ray florets 0 or 5-60+, pistillate
; corollas yellow to orange. Disc florets (20-) 100-200(-300+), bisexual
and fertile (all or outer) or functionally staminate
(ovaries not producing cypselae) corollas yellow, tubes
shorter than gradually to abruptly ampliate
5, erect or spreading
, ± deltate (equal) ; style-branch appendages
linear or lanceolate to ± deltate. Cypselae (whitish or stramineous
to gray, brown, or reddish) ellipsoid
, ± compressed
, sometimes ± 3-4-angled (apices smooth, coroniform
, or knobby), faces smooth
, or rugose
, glabrous; pappi falling, of (1-) 2-8[-15], straight or contorted to curled, smooth or barbellulate
, sometimes distally clavate
, setiform awns, or bristles
in 1 series (in G. ciliata, persistent or tardily falling, of 25-40 barbellate bristles subtending
8-15+ barbellate, setiform awns or subulate scales). x = 6.
Species ca. 30: mostly c, w North America, Mexico, South America; introduced in e North America and the Old World.
The last attempt to account for the whole of Grindelia was by J. A. Steyermark (1934b). After comparing Steyermark's treatment with specimens, one gets the impression that Steyermark had a keen eye for subtleties and trends in variation and that he sometimes assigned taxonomic ranks (species, variety, and forma) to trends rather than to what most botanists would consider to be taxa. Subsequently, writers of local and regional floras have felt obliged to recognize Steyermark's "taxa." Here, some of Steyermark's "taxa" have been included within more broadly drawn circumscriptions; attention is called to them in discussions.Within and among populations of grindelias, some morphologic traits appear to vary more from plant to plant than in most genera of composites . M. P. Dunford (1964) reported grindelias he had tested to be "essentially self-incompatible" and (1986) stated, "...Grindelia species are outcrossing and self-incompatible...." Some patterns of variation within Grindelia are similar to those found in genera characterized by apomictic seed production (e.g. , local morphologic variants such as discoid plants in otherwise radiate taxa, hairy plants in otherwise glabrous taxa, narrow-leaved plants in otherwise broad-leaved taxa, etc. ). See comments in discussion under 13. G. hirsutula.References here to hybrids are based on observations by M. A. Wetter and/or on statements by M. P. Dunford (1964, 1986) and J. A. Steyermark (1934b).Morphologic details and descriptive conventions for grindelias as treated here are:Margins of most cauline leaves of most grindelias are usually dentate to serrate and have sharp, apiculate to setose teeth. Some species characteristically have cauline leaves with ± crenate margins and rounded , obtuse , or truncate teeth tipped by resin globules . Sporadically, individual plants may have some teeth resin-tipped and some teeth apiculate; such specimens may be hybrids or may indicate that the developmental paths to the two forms may be easily redirected. Plants with margins of some or all leaves entire may be encountered in almost all species of Grindelia and may predominate in some plants, populations, or species.Leaf faces are usually gland-dotted with glands embedded in (or sessile in pits in) both the abaxial and adaxial epidermes. In some plants, populations, or species, the glands may be characteristically stipitate ; developmental control for the different forms is apparently easily redirected (see comments under 11. Grindelia howellii).Phyllaries are usually ± chartaceous proximally and herbaceous distally. Orientations of whole phyllaries and of their herbaceous apices are addressed in keys and descriptions . Individually, orientations of phyllaries vary from reflexed through spreading to appressed (often, within an involucre, outer phyllaries are ± reflexed and inner phyllaries are ± appressed). The herbaceous apices of phyllaries may be terete to flat and subulate to acuminate or acute, and vary from looped (coiled through ca. 270-400+ degrees ), hooked (bent ± like a crozier through ± 180+ degrees), patent (bent at ± 90 degrees), or ± recurved or arcuate (sometimes incurved) to straight. An outer phyllary may be reflexed and have a looped, hooked, patent, recurved, or straight tip ; an inner phyllary may be appressed and have a looped to hooked or recurved to straight tip; etc. The resin glands on the apices are usually circular, sometimes linear.Cypselae of grindelias differ markedly from ovaries as seen at flowering. Cypselae are usually whitish or stramineous, sometimes brownish, grayish, reddish, or yellowish. They are usually ± compressed and ± ellipsoid to obovoid, sometimes 3-4-angled and ± reniform or rounded-prismatic. They are usually ± continuously variable in color, shape , size, and/or ornamentation within heads ; sometimes they are ± dimorphic within heads, the outer differing from the inner in color, shape, size, and/or ornamentation. Cypselae that are 3- or 4-angled may have the angles ± thickened or ribbed. Apices of cypselae may be knobby (1-4 bumps or toothlike projections), coronate (a ± pronounced ridge ), or smooth (rounded to ± truncate, not ornamented). Faces of cypselae may be smooth, striate (finely longitudinally nerved), ribbed, furrowed, or ± rugose (bumpy to tuberculate or with longitudinal and transverse fissures , grooves , or wrinkles).Pappus elements are usually subulate scales (greatest width about 3 times thickness), setiform awns (greatest width about 2 times thickness), or bristles (width about equal to thickness) and are usually falling (± persistent subulate scales or setiform awns subtended by bristles in Grindelia ciliata). They may be ± straight or contorted to curled and may be smooth or barbellulate to barbellate; they were described as "entire" or "serrulate" to "setulose" by J. A. Steyermark (1934b) and others.
Flowers: Flower Color: yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,968 meters (0 to 6,457 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Grindelia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 79 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. acutifolia (Sharp-Leaf Gumweed) · G. adenodonta (Grindelia Adenodonta) · G. arizonica (Arizona Gumweed) · G. arizonica Gray var. arizonica Gray (Arizona Gumweed) · G. arizonica Gray var. stenophylla Steyerm. (Arizona Gumweed) · G. arizonica var. arizonica (Arizona Gumweed) · G. arizonica var. neomexicana (New Mexican Gumweed) · G. arizonica var. stenophylla (Arizona Gumweed) · G. camporum (Common Gumplant) · G. camporum var. bracteosa (Bract Gumweed) · G. camporum var. Bracteosum (Great Valley Gumweed) · G. camporum var. camporum (Great Valley Gumweed) · G. camporum var. camporum Greene (Great Valley Gumweed) · G. columbiana (Columbia River Gumweed) · G. decumbens (Reclined Gumweed) · G. decumbens var. decumbens (Reclined Gumweed) · G. decumbens var. subincisa (Reclined Gumweed) · G. decumbens var. subincisa (Greene) Steyerm. (Reclined Gumweed) · G. fastigiata (Pointed Gumweed) · G. fraxinopratensis (Ash Meadows Gumplant) · G. grandiflora (Many-Ray Gumweed) · G. havardii (Havard's Gumweed) · G. hirsutula (Hairy Gumweed) · G. hirsutula Hook. & Arn. var. davyi (Jeps.) M.A.Lane (Davy's Gumweed) · G. hirsutula Hook. & Arn. var. hallii (Steyerm. ex Rothr.) M.A.Lane (Hall's Gumweed) · G. hirsutula Hook. & Arn. var. maritima (Greene) M.A.Lane (Coastal Gumweed) · G. hirsutula var. davyi (Hairy Gumweed) · G. hirsutula var. hallii (Hall's Gumweed) · G. hirsutula var. maritima (Coastal Gumweed) · G. howellii (Howell's Gum-Weed) · G. inornata (Colorado Gumweed) · G. inornata Greene var. angusta Steyerm. (Colorado Gumweed) · G. inornata Greene var. inornata Greene (Colorado Gumweed) · G. inornata var. angusta (Colorado Gumweed) · G. inornata var. inornata (Colorado Gumweed) · G. integrifolia (Puget Sound Gumweed) · G. integrifolia var. integrifolia (Puget Sound Gumweed) · G. laciniata (Cut-Leaf Gumweed) · G. lanceolata (Gulf Gumweed) · G. lanceolata var. lanceolata (Narrowleaf Gumweed) · G. lanceolata var. texana (Texan Gumweed) · G. latifolia var. latifolia (Coastal Gumweed) · G. microcephala (Little-Head Gum Weed) · G. microcephala DC. var. microcephala DC. (Littlehead Gumweed) · G. microcephala var. microcephala (Littlehead Gumweed) · G. nana (Idaho Gumweed) · G. nana var. integerrima (Idaho Gumweed) · G. nana var. integerrima (Rydb.) Steyerm. (Idaho Gumweed) · G. nana var. nana (Idaho Gumweed) · G. nana var. nana Nutt. (Idaho Gumweed) · G. nuda (Curly-Top Gumweed) · G. nuda var. aphanactis (Curlytop Gumweed) · G. nuda var. nuda (Curlytop Gumweed) · G. nuda Wood var. aphanactis (Rydb.) Nesom (Curlytop Gumweed) · G. oolepis (Plains Gumweed) · G. oxylepis (Mexican Gumweed) · G. papposa (Saw-Leaf Daisy) · G. pusilla (Grindelia Pusilla) · G. revoluta (Rolled Gumweed) · G. robusta var. robusta (Shore Gumweed) · G. scabra (Rough Gumweed) · G. squarrosa (Broadleaf Gumweed) · G. squarrosa f. angustior (Curly-Cup Gumweed) · G. squarrosa var. quasiperennis (Curly-Cup Gumweed) · G. squarrosa var. serrulata (Curlycup Gumweed) · G. squarrosa var. squarrosa (Curly-Cup Gumweed) · G. stricta (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. angustifolia (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. angustifolia (Gray) M.A.Lane (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. collina (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. platyphylla (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. platyphylla (Greene) M.A.Lane (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. stricta (Oregon Gumweed) · G. stricta var. stricta DC. (Oregon Gumweed) · G. subalpina (Subalpine Gum-Weed) · G. subalpina Greene var. erecta (A.Nelson) Steyerm. (Subalpine Gumweed) · G. subalpina Greene var. subalpina Greene (Subalpine Gumweed) · G. subalpina var. erecta (Subalpine Gumweed) · G. subalpina var. subalpina (Subalpine Gumweed)
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- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
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- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 19, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 9 providers.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658627
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-37465
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13749560
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:210624-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37465
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST470P0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GRSQI GRNA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 41259
- John L. Strother, Mark A. Wetter "Grindelia". in Flora of North America Vol. 20 Page 6,7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 89, 424, 425, 438. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 979.210 meters (3,212.631 feet), Standard Deviation = 496.370 based on 195 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]