, mycotrophic and white or purplish, or autotrophic and green. Roots
, mycorrhizal, filiform
or stoutly terete
. Stems monopodial, unbranched or with few branches, erect
, slender; rhizomes present or absent. Leaves present or absent, cauline or basal, alternate, simple
, sessile, often scalelike, margins
entire; stipules absent. Inflorescences terminal
cymes, sometimes appearing racemose or capitate, or flowers solitary; each flower subtended by scalelike floral
bract. Flowers: tepals 6, partially or wholly connate
in fruit, limb lobes
3 in 1 whorl or 6 in 2 whorls, greenish, purple, or white, sometimes blue-tinged, often ribbed
with or without annulus; stamens 3 or 6, sessile or subsessile
; pollen sacs
separated on appendaged connective
or connective broadened and connate, forming ring
to annulus; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1- or 3-locular; placentation parietal
; ovules numerous
; style 1, 3-branched apically; stigmas 3. Fruits capsules, ovoid
, obconic, or cup-shaped; dehiscence transverse
by 3 valves
, or irregular. Seeds numerous, minute.
Genera ca. 15, species ca. 125 (3 genera, 5 species in the flora ) : mostly tropical and subtropical , worldwide.
Although Burmanniaceae have traditionally been placed in the Orchidales, it has been suggested that the family may be more closely related to the Melanthiales (= Liliales in the broad sense, as traditionally circumscribed) (R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. 1985) . More recently, molecular and morphological studies by L. R. Caddick et al. (2000, 2000b) support placement of the family in the Dioscoreales .
Burmanniaceae traditionally have been characterized as saprophytic , but the life form is more accurately described as mycotrophic or myco-heterotrophic (J. R. Leake 1994) . Even the photosynthetic species have been shown to be endomycorrhizal (P. J. M. Maas et al. 1986b; C. E. Wood Jr. 1983) and have been described as hemisaprophytic. Saprophytism in the Burmanniaceae and other achlorophyllous families has been fully discussed by J. R. Leake (1994) .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Blume Publication : Cat. Gew. Buitenzorg (Blume) 20 1823 [Feb-Sep 1823]
Members of the genus Gonianthes
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Jonker, F. P. 1938. A monograph of the Burmanniaceae. Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 51: 1279.
- Leake, J. R. 1994. Tansley review no. 69. The biology of myco-heterotrophic (saprophytic) plants. New Phytol. 127: 171216.
- Maas, P. J. M. et al. 1986. Burmanniaceae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 75+ nos. New York. No. 42.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1983. The genera of Burmanniaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 293307.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 4533168