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Gladiolus dichrous

Description

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Family Iridaceae

Herbs perennial (or shrubs or annuals ), with rhizomes, bulbs, or corms. Leaves alternate, often 2-ranked, often oriented edgewise to aerial stem, usually sword-shaped to linear , parallel veined, base sheathing . Inflorescence sometimes a spike or reduced to a solitary flower, more often of monochasial , umbellate cymes, each enclosed in 2 opposed bracts (spathes ) and termed a rhipidium, which may be solitary and terminal or numerous and variously arranged in racemes or panicles; bracts 1 to several. Flowers bisexual , showy, usually actinomorphic (often zygomorphic elsewhere) . Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, inner and outer ones equal or differing in size and/or color; tube filiform or trumpet-shaped. Stamens (2 or) 3; anthers extrorse . Ovary inferior (or superior), 3-loculed; ovules few to many; placentation axile . Style with filiform, slender, or petaloid branches. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds with or without aril and wings .

Between 70 and 80 genera and ca. 1800 species: nearly worldwide, especially S Africa, Asia, and Europe; three genera and 61 species (21 endemic, one introduced ) in China.[1]

Genus Gladiolus

Herbs, perennial , from corms. Stems simple or branched. Leaves 1-9; blade lanceolate to linear , plane or margins and/or midribs variously raised and thickened (then H- or X-shaped in cross section ), or evidently terete , midribs and margins much thickened, grooved ; grooves 4, narrow, longitudinal . Inflorescences spicate , partly to fully secund or with flowers weakly distichous; bracts green, sometimes flushed grayish purple, unequal, outer usually exceeding inner, acute or inner forked or notched apically. Flowers somewhat fragrant, zygomorphic [actinomorphic ]; tepals basally connate into tube , variously colored , usually with contrasting markings comprising nectar guide on outer tepals, usually unequal, dorsal tepal largest, arched to hooded over stamens, outer 3 tepals narrower; perianth tube obliquely funnel-shaped to cylindric ; stamens usually unilateral ; anthers usually parallel; style usually arching over stamens, dividing into 3 filiform branches, these distally expanded. Capsules usually slightly inflated , oblong to ellipsoid or globose [rarely nearly cylindric], softly cartilaginous . Seeds usually many, broadly winged ; rarely few, wingless, globose or angular; seed coat light to dark brown. x = 15.

Species ca. 260: introduced ; Africa, Madagascar, Eurasia .

Hybrid strains of Gladiolus are widely cultivated, and some wild species are grown outdoors in areas with mild winters. The common, large-flowered hybrids are the product of crossing between four or five species, followed by selection. Named variously G. gandavensis L. van Houtte, G. lemoinei Baker, and G. hortulanus L. H. Bailey, these plants are occasionally found in and near gardens and cemeteries and are easily recognized by their large, brightly colored flowers with the inner tepals 60-70 mm long and the outer tepals about 50 mm long. They reproduce mainly vegetatively and persist for some years where winters are mild; they show no evidence of spreading into native vegetation.[2]

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Oenostachys Dichroa

Notes

Basionym : Iridaceae Oenostachys dichroa Bullock

Basionym author: (Bullock)

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Sep-2004

An accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Gladiolus

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 153 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

G. alatus (Gladiolus) · G. callianthus (Abyssinian Gladiolus) · G. cardinalis (Waterfall Gladiolus) · G. carneus (Bergpypie) · G. caryophyllaceus (Pink Trumpet Flower) · G. colvillei (Colville's Gladiolus) · G. communis (Cornflag) · G. communis byzantinus (Cornflag) · G. communis communis (Cornflag) · G. communis subsp. byzantinus (Cornflag) · G. dalenii (African Parrot Gladiola) · G. dalenii 'Bolivian Peach' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. dalenii 'Carolina Primrose' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. equitans (Gladiolus) · G. flanaganii (Gladiolus) · G. gandavensis (Gladiolus) · G. gracilis (Gladiolus) · G. illyricus (Wild Gladiolus) · G. italicus (Cornfield Gladiolus) · G. murielae (Acidanthera) · G. nanus (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. oppositiflorus (Pink Wildflower Gladiolus) · G. orchidiflorus (Gladiolus) · G. papilio (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Aureatus' (Goldblotch Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Purpureoauratus Group' (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Ruby' (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. saundersii (Saunders Gladiolus) · G. tristis (Evening Flower Gladiolus) · G. tubergenii 'Charming Beauty' (Miniature Gladiolus) · G. tubergenii 'Charm' (Miniature Gladiolus) · G. undulatus (Waved-Flowered Corn-Flag) · G. x colvillei (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x colvillei 'Albus' (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x gandavensis (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus (Hybrid Gladiolus Gladiolus X Hortulanus) · G. x hortulanus 'Africa' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Alfalfa' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Aphrodite' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Apricot Lustre' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Atom' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Bibi' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blackpool' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Black Jack' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blues' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Beauty' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Isle' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Lagoon' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Ribbon' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Sky' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Tropic' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Bono's Memory' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Charmer' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Cherry Splash' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Comet' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Coral Lace' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Coral Seas' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Cote D'azure' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Dauntless' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Episode' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Espresso' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Fidelio' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Finishing Touch' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Amico' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Eyes' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Jive' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Junior' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Kosmic' (Gladiolus) · GLadiolus x hortulanus 'Flevo Party' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Friendship' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Frosty White' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Goldfield' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Grand Prix' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Green Star' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Green Woodpecker' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Homecoming' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Hypnose' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Iceberg' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Ice Cream' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Impressive' (Winter Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jacksonville Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jester' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jester Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jubilee' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Junior Flevo' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'King's Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Laguna' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Land O'lakes' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Las Vegas' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Lowland Queen' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Madame De Paris' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Madonna' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mars' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mary Housley' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'May Bride' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Melodie' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mezzo Forte' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Mi Mi' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Mon Amor' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mon Amour' (Gladiolus)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Yu-tang Zhao, Henry J. Noltie & Brian F. Mathew "Iridaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 297. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Peter Goldblatt "Gladiolus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 349, 407, 408. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-04-17