Common Names in English:
Cornflag, False Corn-Flag, Turkish Corn-Flag
), with rhizomes, bulbs, or corms. Leaves alternate, often 2-ranked, often oriented edgewise to aerial
stem, usually sword-shaped
, parallel veined, base
. Inflorescence sometimes a spike or reduced to a solitary flower, more often of monochasial
cymes, each enclosed in 2 opposed bracts (spathes
) and termed a rhipidium, which may be solitary and terminal
and variously arranged in racemes
or panicles; bracts 1 to several. Flowers bisexual
, showy, usually actinomorphic
(often zygomorphic elsewhere) . Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, inner and outer ones equal or differing in size and/or color; tube
or trumpet-shaped. Stamens (2 or) 3; anthers
. Ovary inferior (or superior), 3-loculed; ovules few to many; placentation axile
. Style with filiform, slender, or petaloid
branches. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds with or without aril and wings
Between 70 and 80 genera and ca. 1800 species: nearly worldwide, especially S Africa, Asia, and Europe; three genera and 61 species (21 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, from corms. Stems simple
or branched. Leaves 1-9; blade
lanceolate to linear
variously raised and thickened (then H- or X-shaped in cross
), or evidently terete
, midribs and margins much thickened, grooved
4, narrow, longitudinal
. Inflorescences spicate
, partly to fully secund
or with flowers weakly distichous; bracts green, sometimes flushed grayish purple, unequal, outer usually exceeding inner, acute or inner forked
apically. Flowers somewhat fragrant, zygomorphic [actinomorphic
]; tepals basally connate
, variously colored
, usually with contrasting markings comprising nectar guide
on outer tepals, usually unequal, dorsal tepal largest, arched to hooded
over stamens, outer 3 tepals narrower; perianth tube obliquely funnel-shaped to cylindric
; stamens usually unilateral
usually parallel; style usually arching
over stamens, dividing into 3 filiform
branches, these distally expanded. Capsules usually slightly inflated
[rarely nearly cylindric], softly cartilaginous
. Seeds usually many, broadly winged
; rarely few, wingless, globose or angular; seed coat
light to dark brown. x
Species ca. 260: introduced ; Africa, Madagascar, Eurasia .
Hybrid strains of Gladiolus are widely cultivated, and some wild species are grown outdoors in areas with mild winters. The common, large-flowered hybrids are the product of crossing between four or five species, followed by selection. Named variously G. gandavensis L. van Houtte, G. lemoinei Baker, and G. hortulanus L. H. Bailey, these plants are occasionally found in and near gardens and cemeteries and are easily recognized by their large, brightly colored flowers with the inner tepals 60-70 mm long and the outer tepals about 50 mm long. They reproduce mainly vegetatively and persist for some years where winters are mild; they show no evidence of spreading into native vegetation.
Species Gladiolus communis
50-100 cm. Corms tunicate
20 mm diam.; tunic coriaceous
fragmenting into irregular pieces
, rarely ultimately becoming fibrous
. Leaves ± reaching base
of spike; blade
lanceolate, sometimes narrowly so, 5-22 mm wide. Spikes 10-20-flowered;
unequal, outer 25-35(-50) mm, inner ± 2/3 outer. Flowers
unscented, weakly distichous; perianth tube
10-12 mm; tepals reddish purple with narrow median
white streak on
outer 3 tepals, unequal, dorsal tepal 30-40 × 14-19 mm, inner
tepals joined to outer tepals for ca. 3 mm, 28-35 mm, outer
3 tepals connate
for ca. 2 mm, outer lateral tepals 18-25 mm, outer
median tepal 24-28 mm; filaments
12-15 mm; anthers
10-13 mm; style
branching opposite distal 1/3 of anthers; branches ca. 2 mm.
, 18-24 mm. Seeds broadly winged
, 4-6 mm diam. [source]
Gladiolus communis is a garden escape . In regional floras it is sometimes confused with the southern African G. papilio Hooker; the resemblance is entirely superficial. Plants of G. communis found in North America have traditionally been treated as G. byzantinus, which differs little from G. communis except in degree of robustness . Distinction at even subspecific rank does not seem warranted. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July. • Flower Color: magenta
Size: 18-24" tall.
Roadsides, abandoned gardens, disturbed sites; introduced .
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 45 meters (148 feet).
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Iridaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789 - Iris Family
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
G. communis byzantinus (Miller) A. P. Hamilton • Gladiolus byzantinus Miller
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 36 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Gladiolus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 153 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
G. alatus (Gladiolus) · G. callianthus (Abyssinian Gladiolus) · G. cardinalis (Waterfall Gladiolus) · G. carneus (Bergpypie) · G. caryophyllaceus (Pink Trumpet Flower) · G. colvillei (Colville's Gladiolus) · G. communis (Cornflag) · G. communis byzantinus (Cornflag) · G. communis communis (Cornflag) · G. communis subsp. byzantinus (Cornflag) · G. dalenii (African Parrot Gladiola) · G. dalenii 'Bolivian Peach' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. dalenii 'Carolina Primrose' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. equitans (Gladiolus) · G. flanaganii (Gladiolus) · G. gandavensis (Gladiolus) · G. gracilis (Gladiolus) · G. illyricus (Wild Gladiolus) · G. italicus (Cornfield Gladiolus) · G. murielae (Acidanthera) · G. nanus (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. oppositiflorus (Pink Wildflower Gladiolus) · G. orchidiflorus (Gladiolus) · G. papilio (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Aureatus' (Goldblotch Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Purpureoauratus Group' (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Ruby' (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. saundersii (Saunders Gladiolus) · G. tristis (Evening Flower Gladiolus) · G. tubergenii 'Charming Beauty' (Miniature Gladiolus) · G. tubergenii 'Charm' (Miniature Gladiolus) · G. undulatus (Waved-Flowered Corn-Flag) · G. x colvillei (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x colvillei 'Albus' (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x gandavensis (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus (Hybrid Gladiolus Gladiolus X Hortulanus) · G. x hortulanus 'Africa' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Alfalfa' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Aphrodite' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Apricot Lustre' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Atom' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Bibi' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blackpool' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Black Jack' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blues' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Beauty' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Isle' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Lagoon' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Ribbon' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Sky' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Tropic' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Bono's Memory' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Charmer' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Cherry Splash' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Comet' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Coral Lace' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Coral Seas' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Cote D'azure' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Dauntless' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Episode' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Espresso' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Fidelio' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Finishing Touch' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Amico' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Eyes' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Jive' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Junior' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Kosmic' (Gladiolus) · GLadiolus x hortulanus 'Flevo Party' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Friendship' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Frosty White' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Goldfield' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Grand Prix' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Green Star' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Green Woodpecker' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Homecoming' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Hypnose' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Iceberg' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Ice Cream' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Impressive' (Winter Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jacksonville Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jester' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jester Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jubilee' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Junior Flevo' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'King's Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Laguna' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Land O'lakes' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Las Vegas' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Lowland Queen' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Madame De Paris' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Madonna' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mars' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mary Housley' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'May Bride' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Melodie' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mezzo Forte' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Mi Mi' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Mon Amor' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mon Amour' (Gladiolus)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667264
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-328322
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:437376-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 416307
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 502780
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 437372-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMIRI07060
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GLCOC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38694
- Yu-tang Zhao, Henry J. Noltie & Brian F. Mathew "Iridaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 297. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- "Gladiolus communis". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 408. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 375.470 based on 590 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]