Common Names in English:
), with rhizomes, bulbs, or corms. Leaves alternate, often 2-ranked, often oriented edgewise to aerial
stem, usually sword-shaped
, parallel veined, base
. Inflorescence sometimes a spike or reduced to a solitary flower, more often of monochasial
cymes, each enclosed in 2 opposed bracts (spathes
) and termed a rhipidium, which may be solitary and terminal
and variously arranged in racemes
or panicles; bracts 1 to several. Flowers bisexual
, showy, usually actinomorphic
(often zygomorphic elsewhere) . Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, inner and outer ones equal or differing in size and/or color; tube
or trumpet-shaped. Stamens (2 or) 3; anthers
. Ovary inferior (or superior), 3-loculed; ovules few to many; placentation axile
. Style with filiform, slender, or petaloid
branches. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds with or without aril and wings
Between 70 and 80 genera and ca. 1800 species: nearly worldwide, especially S Africa, Asia, and Europe; three genera and 61 species (21 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, from corms. Stems simple
or branched. Leaves 1-9; blade
lanceolate to linear
variously raised and thickened (then H- or X-shaped in cross
), or evidently terete
, midribs and margins much thickened, grooved
4, narrow, longitudinal
. Inflorescences spicate
, partly to fully secund
or with flowers weakly distichous; bracts green, sometimes flushed grayish purple, unequal, outer usually exceeding inner, acute or inner forked
apically. Flowers somewhat fragrant, zygomorphic [actinomorphic
]; tepals basally connate
, variously colored
, usually with contrasting markings comprising nectar guide
on outer tepals, usually unequal, dorsal tepal largest, arched to hooded
over stamens, outer 3 tepals narrower; perianth tube obliquely funnel-shaped to cylindric
; stamens usually unilateral
usually parallel; style usually arching
over stamens, dividing into 3 filiform
branches, these distally expanded. Capsules usually slightly inflated
[rarely nearly cylindric], softly cartilaginous
. Seeds usually many, broadly winged
; rarely few, wingless, globose or angular; seed coat
light to dark brown. x
Species ca. 260: introduced ; Africa, Madagascar, Eurasia .
Hybrid strains of Gladiolus are widely cultivated, and some wild species are grown outdoors in areas with mild winters. The common, large-flowered hybrids are the product of crossing between four or five species, followed by selection. Named variously G. gandavensis L. van Houtte, G. lemoinei Baker, and G. hortulanus L. H. Bailey, these plants are occasionally found in and near gardens and cemeteries and are easily recognized by their large, brightly colored flowers with the inner tepals 60-70 mm long and the outer tepals about 50 mm long. They reproduce mainly vegetatively and persist for some years where winters are mild; they show no evidence of spreading into native vegetation.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, red, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Iridaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789 - Iris Family
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Red. ex Steud. Publication : Nomencl. Bot. [Steudel], ed. 2. 1: 685 1840
Members of the genus Gladiolus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 153 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
G. alatus (Gladiolus) · G. callianthus (Abyssinian Gladiolus) · G. cardinalis (Waterfall Gladiolus) · G. carneus (Bergpypie) · G. caryophyllaceus (Pink Trumpet Flower) · G. colvillei (Colville's Gladiolus) · G. communis (Cornflag) · G. communis byzantinus (Cornflag) · G. communis communis (Cornflag) · G. communis subsp. byzantinus (Cornflag) · G. dalenii (African Parrot Gladiola) · G. dalenii 'Bolivian Peach' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. dalenii 'Carolina Primrose' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. equitans (Gladiolus) · G. flanaganii (Gladiolus) · G. gandavensis (Gladiolus) · G. gracilis (Gladiolus) · G. illyricus (Wild Gladiolus) · G. italicus (Cornfield Gladiolus) · G. murielae (Acidanthera) · G. nanus (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. oppositiflorus (Pink Wildflower Gladiolus) · G. orchidiflorus (Gladiolus) · G. papilio (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Aureatus' (Goldblotch Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Purpureoauratus Group' (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. papilio 'Ruby' (Autumn Gladiolus) · G. saundersii (Saunders Gladiolus) · G. tristis (Evening Flower Gladiolus) · G. tubergenii 'Charming Beauty' (Miniature Gladiolus) · G. tubergenii 'Charm' (Miniature Gladiolus) · G. undulatus (Waved-Flowered Corn-Flag) · G. x colvillei (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x colvillei 'Albus' (Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x gandavensis (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus (Hybrid Gladiolus Gladiolus X Hortulanus) · G. x hortulanus 'Africa' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Alfalfa' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Aphrodite' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Apricot Lustre' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Atom' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Bibi' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blackpool' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Black Jack' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blues' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Beauty' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Isle' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Lagoon' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Ribbon' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Sky' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Blue Tropic' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Bono's Memory' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Charmer' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Cherry Splash' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Comet' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Coral Lace' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Coral Seas' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Cote D'azure' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Dauntless' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Episode' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Espresso' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Fidelio' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Finishing Touch' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Amico' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Eyes' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Jive' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Junior' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Flevo Kosmic' (Gladiolus) · GLadiolus x hortulanus 'Flevo Party' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Friendship' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Frosty White' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Goldfield' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Grand Prix' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Green Star' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Green Woodpecker' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Homecoming' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Hypnose' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Iceberg' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Ice Cream' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Impressive' (Winter Hardy Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jacksonville Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jester' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jester Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Jubilee' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Junior Flevo' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'King's Gold' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Laguna' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Land O'lakes' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Las Vegas' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Lowland Queen' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Madame De Paris' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Madonna' (Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mars' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mary Housley' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'May Bride' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Melodie' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mezzo Forte' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Mi Mi' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus'Mon Amor' (Hybrid Gladiolus) · G. x hortulanus 'Mon Amour' (Gladiolus)
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- A biochemic basis for the study of problems of taxonomy, heredity, evolution, etc., with especial reference to the starches and tissues of parent-stock and hybrid-stocks and the starches and hemoglobi Washington, D.C.Carnegie institution of Washington1919 url p. 114, p. 115, p. 244, p. 245, p. 4, p. 4, p. 6, p. 6, p. 675, p. 678, p. 679, p. 681, p. 683.
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- A dictionary of modern gardening / by George William Johnson. .. with one hundred and eighty wood cuts. Edited, with numerous additions, by David Landreth. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 249.
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- Guide to the autumn flowers of Minnesota, field and garden. [By] F. E. Clements, C. O. Rosendahl and F. K. Butters. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1913. url p. 60.
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- Lawns and gardens. How to plant and beautify the home lot, the pleasure ground and garden, by N. Jönsson-Rose. With numerous plans and illustrations by the author. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1897. url p. 368.
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- Meehans' monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany and kindred subjects / conducted by Thomas Meehan. Philadelphia: Thomas Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url p. 42.
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- The book of hardy flowers; a simple and complete descriptive guide to the cultivation in gardens of the trees and shrubs, perennial and annual flowers, that are hardy, or are suitable for planting out-of-doors in summer in temp Ed. by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with thirty-two direct color photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke and sixty-four half-tone plates. 1915 New York, Funk & Wagnalls company; [etc., etc.] url p. 202.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 04, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5837107
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-328299
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:437345-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 437345-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 741933
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