Common Names in English:
Spring Avens, Heart-Leaf Avens
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, sometimes stoloniferous
. Stipules adnate
to and sheathing
leaves pinnate or pseudopinnate; terminal
leaflets often in alternating larger and smaller pairs; cauline leaves few, often 3-foliolate or bractlike. Flowers solitary or in corymbs, bisexual
. Hypanthium turbinate
. Sepals 5, valvate
segments 5, small, alternate with sepals. Petals 5, yellow, white, or red, orbicular
. Stamens numerous
, crowded. Disk lining
. Carpels numerous, borne on prominent
, usually cylindric
; ovule ascending
; style filiform
; stigma slightly recurved or hooked
, minute. Achenes sessile or stipitate
, small, hooked at apex of beak
. Seed erect
; testa membranous; cotyledons oblong
About 70 species: widespread in temperate zones of both hemispheres; three species in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 400000 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Nu • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 1.6 • Size: 12-18" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 749 meters (0 to 2,457 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Spring • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Low • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 4.8 • Maximum pH: 7.0 • Fertility Requirement: High
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -18 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 130 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Geum vernum (Raf.) Torr. & Gray • Stylypus vernus Raf.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2009
Members of the genus Geum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 59 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. aleppicum (Yellow Avens) · G. aleppicum var. cuneatum (Yellow Avens) · G. aurantiacum (Avens) · G. calthifolium (Caltha-Leaf Avens) · G. canadense (White Avens) · G. canadense var. brevipes (White Avens) · G. canadense var. camporum (White Avens) · G. canadense var. grimesii (Grand Birch) · G. canadense var. texanum (Texan Avens) · G. chiloense (Avens) · G. chiloense 'Lady Stratheden' (Lady Stratheden Avens) · G. coccineum (Scarlet Avens) · G. coccineum 'Cooky' (Scarlet Avens) · G. geniculatum (Bent Avens) · G. glaciale (Glacier Avens) · G. laciniatum (Rough Avens) · G. laciniatum var. laciniatum (Rough Avens) · G. macranthum (Avens) · G. macrophyllum (Large Leaf Avens) · G. macrophyllum var. macrophyllum (Largeleaf Avens) · G. magellanicum (Hierba Del Clavo) · G. montanum (Alpine Avens) · G. peckii (Mountain Avens) · G. pentapetalum (Aleutian Avens) · G. pulchrum (Avens) · G. radiatum (Appalachian Avens) · G. rivale (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Album' (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Leonard's Double' (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Leonard's Variety' (Bog Avens) · G. rossii (Ross Avens) · G. rossii var. depressum (Ross' Avens) · G. rossii var. turbinatum (Ross Avens) · G. triflorum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum f. ornatum (Old-Man´s-Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. campanulatum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. canescens (Alpine Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. ciliatum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. urbanum (Avens) · G. urbanum 'Checkmate' (Bennet) · G. vernum (Spring Avens) · G. virginianum (Cream Avens) · G. x aurantiacum (Avens) · G. x heldreichii 'Georgenberg' (Georgenberg Chilean Avens) · G. x macranthum (Avens) · G. x pulchrum (Avens) · G. 'Blazing Sunset' (Avens) · G. 'Borisii' (Boris Avens) · G. 'Coppertone' (Avens) · G. 'Dolly North' (Avens) · G. 'Fireball' (Avens) · G. 'Georgenberg' (Avens) · G. 'Lady Stratheden' (Avens) · G. 'Lemon Drops' (Avens) · G. 'Mango Lassi' (Grecian Rose) · G. 'Mrs J. Bradshaw' (Avens) · G. 'Paso Doble' (Avens) · G. 'Prinses Juliana' (Avens) · G. 'Werner Arends' (Scarlet Avens)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A botanical survey of the Sugar Grove region / by Robert F. Griggs. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 321.
- A class-book of botany, designed for colleges, academies, and other seminaries. Illustrated by a flora of northern, middle, and western states; particularly of the United States north of the Capitol, lat. 38 3/4. Claremont, N. H., Manufacturing Co., S. Ide, agent, 1850. url p. 254.
- A preliminary list of the vascular flora of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania / by John A. Shaffer. Pittsburgh?: Carnegie Institute Museum?, 1901? url p. 45.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 271.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 45.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 395.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 1908 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 224.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 257, p. 257, p. 88.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 1986-1992 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 63.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 22 1913 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 401, p. 402.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url , p. 941, p. 944.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 159, p. 77.
- Bulletin / Ohio Biological Survey. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1913- url p. 183.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 15 1888 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 204, p. 484.
- Bulletin of the scientific laboratories of Denison University. Granville, Ohio: [The University], 1885- url p. 33.
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants, arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Univ Columbus, The Ohio State University, 1914. url .
- Catalog of Ohio vascular plants: arranged according to the phyletic classification: with notes on the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, the Ohio State Uni by John H. Schaffner. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1914. url p. 183.
- Catalogue of Canadian plants. .. Montreal [etc.]1883-1902. url p. 133.
- Catalogue of the phanerogams and ferns of Licking County, Ohio. Granville, Ohio, Press of Granville Times, 1892. url .
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 484.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 21 1919 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 175, p. 205.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 23 2001 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 313.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 10, p. 11, p. 15, p. 16, p. 30, p. 37, p. 46, p. 57, p. 59, p. 79.
- Fieldbook of Illinois wild flowers; six hundred fifty of the more common flowering plants in the state. Urbana, 1936. url p. 153.
- Flora of Illinois, containing keys for the identification of the flowering plants and ferns, by George Neville Jones. .. Notre Dame, Ind., The University Press, 1945. url p. 151.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 1063, p. 568, p. 569.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 171.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 211.
- Flora of West Virginia. Charleston, W. Va., M.W. Donnally, 1892. url p. 357.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 175.
- Flora of the Miami Valley, Ohio /c by A.P. Morgan. Dayton, Ohio: Literary Union, 1878. url p. 18.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 522, p. 523.
- Flora of the southern United States: containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida: arr. according to the natural system. New YorkAmerican Book Co. url p. 134.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 369.
- Flowers and insects; lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty-three flowers, by Charles Robertson. Carlinville, Ill., n.p.1928. url p. 170.
- Gray's school and field book of botany, consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume / by Asa Gray... New York: American Book co.,  url p. 122.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Handbook of the wild and cultivated flowering plants, by Chester Arthur Darling... Syracuse andThe Mason-Henry press,  url p. 18.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 188.
- Manual of the Flora of Jackson County, Missouri, By Kenneth K. MacKenzie, assisted by B. F. Bush and others. Kansas City, Mo., s.n., 1902 url p. 106.
- Manual of the flora of Jackson County, Missouri, by Kenneth K. Mackenzie, assisted by B. F. Bush and others. Kansas City, Mo., 1902. url .
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 507.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 618.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 188.
- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1965 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 48.
- Natural history of New York. Albany: D. Appleton: 1842-1894. url p. 522.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 143, p. 71.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 161.
- Preliminary catalogue of the flora of West Virginia. [Chicago?]1892 url p. 357.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 101, p. 1010, p. 198, p. 65.
- Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston [etc.]Boston Society of Natural History. url p. 34.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 211.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- Report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904-1916. url p. 171.
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url p. 944, p. 983.
- Report on the botany of Barren and Edmonson counties. Frankfort, 1876 url .
- Sandusky flora. A catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns growing without cultivation, in Erie County, Ohio, and the peninsula and islands of Ottawa County, Wooster, O., Press of Clapper Printing Co., 1899. url .
- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 522.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 28, p. 88.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 28, p. 30.
- The American botanist and florist: including lessons in the structure, life, and growth of plants: together with a simple analytical flora, descriptive of the native and cultivated plants growing in the Atlantic division of the Americ by Alphonso Wood. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1877, c1870. url p. 106.
- The American journal of science. 23 (2) 1857 New Haven, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University. url p. 397.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url , p. 69.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 306.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 535.
- The Ohio journal of science. Columbus, Ohio, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Academy of Science url p. 294, p. 421, p. 422.
- The University of Missouri studies. Columbia, Mo.: The University, 1905- url p. 154, p. 35.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 95.
- The natural history of plants. Translated by Marcus M. Hartog. LondonL. Reeve1871- url p. 367.
- Timber and botany. comprising seven reports on the forests and botany of different parts of the state / Geological Survey of Kentucky. [S.l.]: The Survey, 1884. url p. 49.
- Torrey, J. & A. Gray A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system /by John Torrey and Asa Gray. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838-. url p. 422.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. 6 1894 [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 439, p. 447, p. 449.
- Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Toronto: Canadian Institute. url p. 203.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 187, p. 234, p. 42, p. 46, p. 92.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 83.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 63.
- Yü Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien & Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1443; 37: 1516; 38: 1133.
- Yü Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien & Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1443; 37: 1516; 38: 1133.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 30, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649887
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-5607
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:725402-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 451588
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 24664
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDROS0S0H0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GEVE
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 40702
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Li Chao-luang, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba "Geum". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 286. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 250.750 meters (822.671 feet), Standard Deviation = 114.830 based on 481 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]