Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Zi E Lu Bian Qing
Common Names in English:
Bog Avens, Cure All, Indian Chocolate, Purple Avens, Water Avens
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, sometimes stoloniferous
. Stipules adnate
to and sheathing
leaves pinnate or pseudopinnate; terminal
leaflets often in alternating larger and smaller pairs; cauline leaves few, often 3-foliolate or bractlike. Flowers solitary or in corymbs, bisexual
. Hypanthium turbinate
. Sepals 5, valvate
segments 5, small, alternate with sepals. Petals 5, yellow, white, or red, orbicular
. Stamens numerous
, crowded. Disk lining
. Carpels numerous, borne on prominent
, usually cylindric
; ovule ascending
; style filiform
; stigma slightly recurved or hooked
, minute. Achenes sessile or stipitate
, small, hooked at apex of beak
. Seed erect
; testa membranous; cotyledons oblong
About 70 species: widespread in temperate zones of both hemispheres; three species in China.
Species Geum rivale
Roots robust , terete . Stems erect , 25-70 cm tall, pilose or hirtellous. Radical leaves lyrately pinnate, 10-35 cm including petiole , with 2-4 pairs of leaflets , both surfaces scattered strigose ; leaflets unequal, terminal one largest, usually rhombic-ovate, lobed , 4-9 × 3-8 cm, base broadly cuneate or subtruncate, margin markedly incised-lobed to 3-parted and coarsely serrate, apex rounded ; cauline leaves: stipules green, ovate-elliptic, lobed to parted , herbaceous; leaf blade simple , 3-lobed or 3-parted. Inflorescence usually nodding , laxly 2-4-flowered. Flowers 2-2.5 cm in diam.; pedicel densely yellow pubescent and pilose. Sepals ovate-triangular, apex acuminate; epicalyx segments usually purplish, linear-lanceolate, minute, 1/3-1/2 as long as sepals, apex acuminate. Petals yellow, purple-brown striate , semiorbicular, longer than sepals, base abruptly tapered into a rather long claw . Style terminal, filiform , twisted at joint ; proximal section yellow villous ; distal section deciduous at fruit maturity. Fruiting receptacle hirtellous, hairs 1.5-2 mm; achenes yellow villous; proximal section of style persistent. Fl. and fr. May-Aug. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: Purple • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 400000 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 3.0 • Size: 6-12" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Thickets, meadows in valleys, ravine gravels ; 1200--2300 m (Ref. 100858).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 4.8 • Maximum pH: 7.0 • Fertility Requirement: High
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 55 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -33 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 95 • Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Geum aleppicum strictum (Sol.) R. T. Clausen • Geum aleppicum var. bipinnatum (Batalin) Hand. -Mazz. • Geum aleppicum var. strictum (Sol.) Fernald • Geum intermedium Ledeb. • Geum potaninii Juz. • Geum ranunculoides Ser. • Geum strictum Sol. • Geum strictum var. bipinnata Batalin • Geum strictum var. decurrens (Rydb.) Kearney and Peebles
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2009
Members of the genus Geum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 59 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. aleppicum (Yellow Avens) · G. aleppicum var. cuneatum (Yellow Avens) · G. aurantiacum (Avens) · G. calthifolium (Caltha-Leaf Avens) · G. canadense (White Avens) · G. canadense var. brevipes (White Avens) · G. canadense var. camporum (White Avens) · G. canadense var. grimesii (Grand Birch) · G. canadense var. texanum (Texan Avens) · G. chiloense (Avens) · G. chiloense 'Lady Stratheden' (Lady Stratheden Avens) · G. coccineum (Scarlet Avens) · G. coccineum 'Cooky' (Scarlet Avens) · G. geniculatum (Bent Avens) · G. glaciale (Glacier Avens) · G. laciniatum (Rough Avens) · G. laciniatum var. laciniatum (Rough Avens) · G. macranthum (Avens) · G. macrophyllum (Large Leaf Avens) · G. macrophyllum var. macrophyllum (Largeleaf Avens) · G. magellanicum (Hierba Del Clavo) · G. montanum (Alpine Avens) · G. peckii (Mountain Avens) · G. pentapetalum (Aleutian Avens) · G. pulchrum (Avens) · G. radiatum (Appalachian Avens) · G. rivale (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Album' (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Leonard's Double' (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Leonard's Variety' (Bog Avens) · G. rossii (Ross Avens) · G. rossii var. depressum (Ross' Avens) · G. rossii var. turbinatum (Ross Avens) · G. triflorum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum f. ornatum (Old-Man´s-Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. campanulatum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. canescens (Alpine Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. ciliatum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. urbanum (Avens) · G. urbanum 'Checkmate' (Bennet) · G. vernum (Spring Avens) · G. virginianum (Cream Avens) · G. x aurantiacum (Avens) · G. x heldreichii 'Georgenberg' (Georgenberg Chilean Avens) · G. x macranthum (Avens) · G. x pulchrum (Avens) · G. 'Blazing Sunset' (Avens) · G. 'Borisii' (Boris Avens) · G. 'Coppertone' (Avens) · G. 'Dolly North' (Avens) · G. 'Fireball' (Avens) · G. 'Georgenberg' (Avens) · G. 'Lady Stratheden' (Avens) · G. 'Lemon Drops' (Avens) · G. 'Mango Lassi' (Grecian Rose) · G. 'Mrs J. Bradshaw' (Avens) · G. 'Paso Doble' (Avens) · G. 'Prinses Juliana' (Avens) · G. 'Werner Arends' (Scarlet Avens)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal January 28, 2008:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Observations du Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien.
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- GBIF-Spain, Botánica, Universidad de León: LEB-Cormo
- GBIF-Spain, CIBIO, Alicante:ABH-GBIF
- GBIF-Spain, Departamento de Biolog. Veg. II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: MAF
- GBIF-Spain, Jardi Botanic de Valencia: VAL
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Univ. Herbarium SALAMANCA: SALA
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad del País Vasco/EHU, Bilbao: Herbario BIO
- GBIF-Spain, Universitat de Girona: HGI-Cormophyta
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649883
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-54006
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481042
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:725357-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 431619
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 24659
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDROS0S0D0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GERI2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 40695
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Li Chao-luang, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba "Geum". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 286. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 290.930 meters (954.495 feet), Standard Deviation = 327.600 based on 18,827 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]