Common Names in English:
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, sometimes stoloniferous
. Stipules adnate
to and sheathing
leaves pinnate or pseudopinnate; terminal
leaflets often in alternating larger and smaller pairs; cauline leaves few, often 3-foliolate or bractlike. Flowers solitary or in corymbs, bisexual
. Hypanthium turbinate
. Sepals 5, valvate
segments 5, small, alternate with sepals. Petals 5, yellow, white, or red, orbicular
. Stamens numerous
, crowded. Disk lining
. Carpels numerous, borne on prominent
, usually cylindric
; ovule ascending
; style filiform
; stigma slightly recurved or hooked
, minute. Achenes sessile or stipitate
, small, hooked at apex of beak
. Seed erect
; testa membranous; cotyledons oblong
About 70 species: widespread in temperate zones of both hemispheres; three species in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2009
Members of the genus Geum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 59 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. aleppicum (Yellow Avens) · G. aleppicum var. cuneatum (Yellow Avens) · G. aurantiacum (Avens) · G. calthifolium (Caltha-Leaf Avens) · G. canadense (White Avens) · G. canadense var. brevipes (White Avens) · G. canadense var. camporum (White Avens) · G. canadense var. grimesii (Grand Birch) · G. canadense var. texanum (Texan Avens) · G. chiloense (Avens) · G. chiloense 'Lady Stratheden' (Lady Stratheden Avens) · G. coccineum (Scarlet Avens) · G. coccineum 'Cooky' (Scarlet Avens) · G. geniculatum (Bent Avens) · G. glaciale (Glacier Avens) · G. laciniatum (Rough Avens) · G. laciniatum var. laciniatum (Rough Avens) · G. macranthum (Avens) · G. macrophyllum (Large Leaf Avens) · G. macrophyllum var. macrophyllum (Largeleaf Avens) · G. magellanicum (Hierba Del Clavo) · G. montanum (Alpine Avens) · G. peckii (Mountain Avens) · G. pentapetalum (Aleutian Avens) · G. pulchrum (Avens) · G. radiatum (Appalachian Avens) · G. rivale (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Album' (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Leonard's Double' (Bog Avens) · G. rivale 'Leonard's Variety' (Bog Avens) · G. rossii (Ross Avens) · G. rossii var. depressum (Ross' Avens) · G. rossii var. turbinatum (Ross Avens) · G. triflorum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum f. ornatum (Old-Man´s-Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. campanulatum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. canescens (Alpine Old Man's Whiskers) · G. triflorum var. ciliatum (Old Man's Whiskers) · G. urbanum (Avens) · G. urbanum 'Checkmate' (Bennet) · G. vernum (Spring Avens) · G. virginianum (Cream Avens) · G. x aurantiacum (Avens) · G. x heldreichii 'Georgenberg' (Georgenberg Chilean Avens) · G. x macranthum (Avens) · G. x pulchrum (Avens) · G. 'Blazing Sunset' (Avens) · G. 'Borisii' (Boris Avens) · G. 'Coppertone' (Avens) · G. 'Dolly North' (Avens) · G. 'Fireball' (Avens) · G. 'Georgenberg' (Avens) · G. 'Lady Stratheden' (Avens) · G. 'Lemon Drops' (Avens) · G. 'Mango Lassi' (Grecian Rose) · G. 'Mrs J. Bradshaw' (Avens) · G. 'Paso Doble' (Avens) · G. 'Prinses Juliana' (Avens) · G. 'Werner Arends' (Scarlet Avens)
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- Mean = 249.630 meters (818.996 feet), Standard Deviation = 182.330 based on 1,151 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]