Common Names in English:
Carolina Crane's-Bill, Carolina Crane´s-Bill, Carolina Cranesbill, Carolina Geranium, Cranesbill
herbs. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate
, variously divided
. Peduncles (1-) 2-flowered. Flowers often showy, regular, usually 5-merous. Petals alternating with 5 nectiferous glands
. Stamens (5-) 10, staminodes occasional. Carpels usually 5, adnate
, separating septifragally from the central axis at maturity. Ovary 5-lobed. Fruit schizocarpic, of 5 mericarps which remain attached to an elastically coiling
axis upwards; mericarps without apical pits.
A genus of c. 400 species, mainly distributed in the temperate zone of N. Hemisphere, but also in the tropics. Represented in Pakistan by 22 species. The large flowered perennials are difficult to key out satisfactorily unless there is ample information on the nature of the underground parts, flower colour, shape and size of the leaves and the fruits. In the key that follows, I have used the following terminology: segments for primary division of leaves; lobes for secondary division . The sepal length excludes the awn . The beak length (in fruit) excludes the styles.
Species Geranium carolinianum
. Stem 10-65(-70) cm tall, erect
, not rooting
at nodes, with
abundant 0.2-1.1 mm patent
0.2-0.7 mm patent glandular trichomes. Stipules lanceolate
. Leaves 1-3 alternate but opposite at inflorescence;
with usually 0.2-1.1 mm patent nonglandular trichomes and
scattered glandular trichomes; leaf blade
2.2-6.5 cm, palmately cleft
ratio of main sinus/middle segment length
= 0.7-0.9, pilose
nonglandular trichomes; segments 5(or 7), rhombic
mm wide at base
, 5-12-lobed in distal half, ratio of second sinus/middle
segment length = 0.27-0.31. Cymules
in dense aggregates at apex of
or solitary in forks, 2(or 3) -flowered; peduncle 0-2.5(-6)
cm. Pedicel 3-11 mm, with 0.2-0.7 mm patent or sometimes retrorse
but not appressed nonglandular trichomes and 0.3-0.6 mm patent glandular
trichomes; bracteoles lanceolate. Sepals 5-6.5 mm, mucro
ratio of mucro/sepal length = ca.
0.3, outside with 0.1-0.6 mm antrorse
to patent nonglandular trichomes and 0.2-0.5 mm patent glandular
trichomes, inside glabrous
. Petals white or pale
purple, 5.5-6 mm,
erect to patent, inside glabrous, margin
, apex rounded
or slightly notched
whitish, lanceolate to lanceolate
with an abruptly narrowed apex, abaxially sparsely pilose and basal
half ciliate, trichomes 0.1-0.3 mm; anthers
yellowish, 0.4-0.6 mm.
Nectaries 5, hemispheric
, glabrous. Stigma pinkish. Fruit 1.9-2.5
cm, erect when immature
; mericarps smooth
, with a basal callus, with
0.5-1.8 mm patent to antrorse nonglandular trichomes and sometimes
0.4-1 mm patent glandular trichomes; rostrum 1.5-1.9 cm, with a 1-2
mm narrowed apex; stigmatic
remains 0.7-1.4 mm. Seeds 2-2.2 mm. Fl.
Apr-Jul, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 46-48, 52. [source]
This species has distinctive mericarps that are blackish when ripe and that have long patent trichomes. Presence of glandular trichomes is rather variable along plant. The whole plant is used in Chinese medicine for relieving rheumatic pains and colds. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Plains , weedy areas; sea level to 800 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,333 meters (0 to 7,654 feet).
Duration: Annual , Biennial
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Geranianae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Geranium atrum Moench • Geranium carolinianum f. albiflorum B. Boivin • Geranium carolinianum var. carolinianum L. • Geranium carolinianum var. confertiflorum Fernald • Geranium carolinianum var. sphaerospermum (Fernald) Breitung • Geranium carolinum Burm. F. • Geranium carolinum Crantz • Geranium dissectum var. carolinianum (L.) Hook. F. • Geranium langloisii Greene • Geranium lanuginosum Jacq. • Geranium lenticulum Raf. • Geranium sphaerospermum Fernald • Geranium thermale Rydb.
Publishing author : L. Publication : Species Plantarum 1753 (1 May 1753)
Members of the genus Geranium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 263 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
G. (Cranesbill [thumping Heart]) · G. aequale (Awnless Geranium) · G. aequatoriale (Cranesbill) · G. albicans (Roundleaf Geranium) · G. arboreum (Hawai'i Red Cranesbill) · G. aristatum (Cranesbill) · G. asphodeloides (Hedgerow Geranium) · G. atropurpureum Heller var. cowenii (Rydb.) Dorn (Western Purple Cranesbill) · G. bicknellii (Bicknell's Cranesbill) · G. bicknellii Britton var. bicknellii Britton (Bicknell's Cranesbill) · G. bohemicum 'Orchid Blue' (Cranesbill) · G. caespitosum (James Cranebill) · G. caespitosum E.James var. fremontii (Torr. ex A.Gray) Dorn (Fremont Geranium) · G. caespitosum var. parryi (Engelm.) W.A.Weber (Parry Geranium) · G. californicum (California Crane's-Bill) · G. canariensis (Giant Geranium) · G. carolinianum (Carolina Crane's-Bill) · G. carolinianum L. var. sphaerospermum (Fern.) Breitung (Carolina Geranium) · G. cinereum (Grayleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum var. subcaulescens 'Giuseppe' (Greyleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum'Alice' (Alice Grayleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum 'Ballerina' (Ballerina Cranesbill) · G. cinereum 'Carol' (Carol Cranesbill) · G. cinereum 'Lawrence Flatman' (Grayleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum 'Memories' (Grayleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum 'Purple Pillow' (Grayleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum 'Sateene' (Sateen Grayleaf Geranium) · G. cinereum subcaulescens 'Splendens' (Grayleaf Geranium) · G. clarkei (Cranesbill) · G. clarkei 'Kashmir Pink' (Cranesbill) · G. clarkei 'Kashmir Purple' (Cranesbill) · G. clarkei 'Kashmir White' (Cranesbill) · G. columbinum (Long-Stalk Crane's-Bill) · G. cuneatum cuneatum (Cuneate-Leaf Crane's-Bill) · G. cuneatum hololeucum (Hinahina) · G. cuneatum hypoleucum (Hinahina) · G. cuneatum tridens (Hinahina) · G. dalmaticum (Geranium) · G. dissectum (Cut-Leaf Crane's-Bill) · G. divaricatum (Fanleaf Geranium) · G. Dragon Heart = 'Bremdra' (Cranesbill [dragon Heart]) · G. endressii (Cranesbill) · G. endressii x psilostemon 'Patricia' (Patricia Cranesbill) · G. erianthum (Northern Crane's-Bill) · G. farreri (Farrers Geranium) · G. gracile (Hardy Geranium) · G. hanaense (Maui Geranium) · G. harveyi (Cranesbill) · G. hayatanum (Hardy Geranium) · G. himalayense (Cranesbill) · G. himalayense 'Baby Blue' (Himalayan Geranium) · G. himalayense 'Derrick Cook' (Himalayan Geranium) · G. himalayense 'Devil's Blue' (Devil's Blue Himalayan Geranium) · G. himalayense 'Gravetye' (Himalayan Geranium) · G. himalayense 'Irish Blue' (Himalayan Geranium) · G. himalayense 'Plenum' (Birch Double Geranium) · G. homeanum (Australasia Crane's-Bill) · G. ibericum (Iberian Crane's-Bill) · G. ibericum jubatum (Iberian Geranium) · G. incanum (Carpet Geranium) · G. incanum 'Silver Sugar Plum' (Carpet Geranium) · G. kauaiense (Kauai Geranium) · G. lambertii (Geranium) · G. lambertii x procurrens 'Salome' (Salome Cranesbill) · G. lambertii 'Swansdown' (Geranium) · G. lentum (Mogollon Crane's-Bill) · G. libani (Geranium Geranium Libani) · G. lucidum (Shining Crane's-Bill) · G. macrorrhizum (Big Root Geranium) · G. macrorrhizum 'Album' (Cranesbill) · G. macrorrhizum 'Bevan's Variety' (Bevan's Variety Bigroot Cranesbill) · G. macrorrhizum 'Czakor' (Cranesbill) · G. macrorrhizum 'Ingwersen's Variety' (Ingwersen's Variety Bigroot Cranesbill) · G. macrorrhizum 'Lohfelden' (Cranesbill) · G. macrorrhizum 'Spessart' (Bigroot Cranesbill) · G. macrorrhizum 'Variegatum' (Bigroot Geranium) · G. macrorrhizum 'White-Ness' (Cranesbill) · G. macrostylum (Cranesbill) · G. maculatum (Cranesbill) · G. maculatum 'Album' (Spotted Geranium) · G. maculatum 'Elizabeth Ann' (Elizabeth Anne Hardy Geranium) · G. maculatum 'Espresso' (Espresso Cranesbill) · G. maderense (Madeiran Cranesbill) · G. magnificum (Cranesbill) · G. magniflorum (Cranesbill) · G. magniflorum 'Laveta Lace' (Geranium) · G. makmelicum (Grayleaf Geranium) · G. molle (Awnless Geranium) · G. molle molle (Dovesfoot Crane's-Bill) · G. multiflorum (Many-Flower Crane's Bill) · G. multiflorum multiflorum (Manyflower Geranium) · G. multisectum (Cranesbill) · G. nodosum (Geranium) · G. oreganum (Oregon Crane's-Bill) · G. palmatum (Canary Island Geranium) · G. palustre (Marsh Cranes-Bill) · G. phaeum (Dusky Cranesbill) · G. phaeum phaeum 'Samobor' (Cranesbill) · G. phaeum 'Album' (Dusky Cranesbill) · G. phaeum 'Calligrapher' (Dusky Cranesbill)
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- Mean = 249.000 meters (816.929 feet), Standard Deviation = 311.270 based on 1,126 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]