Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Scarlet Beeblossom, Scarlet Gaura, Scarlet Gaura Gaura Coccinea, Scarlet Guara, Wild Honeysuckle
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Spanish:
herbs, or shrubs
, rarely trees
to 30 m
tall, often with epidermal oil cells
, usually with internal phloem
. Leaves simple
, spirally arranged
, opposite, or occasionally whorled
, entire or toothed
; stipules present and usually caducous
, or absent. Flowers perfect
or occasionally unisexual
or zygomorphic, (2-) 4(-7) -merous, axillary
, in leafy spikes or racemes
or solitary, or occasionally in panicles, all but Ludwigia with distinct
within. Sepals green or colored
. Petals as many as sepals or rarely absent, variously colored, imbricate or convolute and occasionally clawed. Stamens as many as sepals in one series or 2 Ã— as many as sepals in 2 series [in Lopezia Cavanilles reduced to 2 or 1 plus 1 sterile
versatile or basifixed
, sometimes cross-partitioned, opening by longitudinal
slits; pollen grains
almost always united
by viscin threads, shed as monads
, or polyads
. Ovary inferior, with as many carpels and locules as sepals, septa sometimes thin or absent at maturity; placentation axile
, ovules 1 to many per locule, in 1 or several rows
or clustered, anatropous
, bitegmic; style 1; stigma with as many lobes
as sepals or clavate
. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or indehiscent nut or berry. Seeds small, smooth
or variously sculptured
, sometimes with a coma [or wing
], with straight oily embryo, endosperm lacking.
Seventeen genera and ca. 650 species: widespread in temperate and subtropical areas, but best represented in W North America; six genera (two introduced ), 64 species (11 endemic, 11 introduced), and five natural hybrids (two endemic) in China.
Onagraceae are a well-defined, monophyletic family in the order Myrtales, with a sister relationship to Lythraceae. Within the order Myrtales, the Onagraceae are distinguished by a number of features including (1) a distinctive 4-nucleate embryo sac; (2) abundant raphides in vegetative cells ; (3) paracrystalline beaded pollen ektexine; and (4) pollen with viscin threads.
Some species of Oenothera are grown for the oil in their seeds, which contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA), used for medicinal purposes. Several species of Onagraceae also are cultivated in China for their horticultural value, including species of Fuchsia Linnaeus (generally distinguished by having large, tubular , red or orange flowers and fleshy berries ) and Clarkia Pursh (distinguished by having stigmas with commissural lobes with dry, unicellular papillae, and dry, elongate capsules similar to those of Epilobium but lacking comas on the seeds) . The most commonly cultivated Fuchsia is F. Ã—hybrida Hort. and the related F. magellanica Lamarck in F. sect. Quelusia (Vandelli) Candolle from South America; F. triphylla Linnaeus, in F. sect. Fuchsia, from Hispaniola, is known from only one gathering in Fujian. Similarly, Clarkia amoena (Lehmann) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride is widely cultivated in China, whereas C. pulchella Pursh is known from only one gathering in Xizang; both species are native to W North America. There are no naturalized species of either Clarkia or Fuchsia in China.
, biennial or perennial
, with a taproot
or woody branching caudex
, occasionally with rhizomes. Stems one to several, simple
or much branched. Leaves alternate, basal rosette leaves
largest, decreasing in size upward, entire or toothed
, often lyrate below, shortly petiolate
below to subsessile
above; stipules absent. Flowers perfect
, zygomorphic to sometimes actinomorphic
, forming a spicate
, not leafy, opening near sunset or near sunrise. Floral tube
, deciduous soon after anthesis
. Sepals (3 or) 4, reflexed
, green or yellowish. Petals (3 or) 4, white, fading to reddish, rarely yellow, usually abruptly clawed. Stamens (6 or) 8. Anthers
versatile; pollen shed singly. Ovary with (3 or) 4 locules, with 1(or 2) ovules per locule; stigma divided
into (3 or) 4 short linear
, receptive all around, and subtended by a ± conspicuous
ringlike indusium. Fruit an indehiscent nutlike capsule with hard walls, broadly fusiform
to sharply (3 or) 4-angled, sessile or basal portion sterile
and stipelike. Seeds (1 or) 2-4 per capsule, irregularly ovoid
. 2n = 14, 28, 42, 56.
Twenty-one species: C and E North America to C Mexico; one species (naturalized ) in China.
Recent molecular data demonstrate that Gaura, together with the unispecific genus Stenosiphon Spach, although comprising a monophyletic group, is embedded within the diverse genus Oenothera, and is best treated as part of that genus. The morphological characters used to delimit the genus-nutlike, indehiscent capsules with 1-4 seeds, flowers mostly zygomorphic, stigma lobes short-still delimit the group but now are viewed as specializations derived within Oenothera.
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May, June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: mauve , near white, pink, red-purple, rose, white
Size: 36-48" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Myrtales () - Reichenbach, 1828
- Superorder: Myrtanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Gaura coccinea var. arizonica Munz • Gaura coccinea var. epilobioides (Kunth) Munz • Gaura coccinea var. glabra (Lehm.) Munz • Gaura coccinea var. parvifolia (Torr.) Rickett • Gaura coccinea var. typica Munz • Gaura glabra Lehm. • Gaura odorata Sessé Ex Lag.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Gaura
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 57 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. angustifolia (Morning Honeysuckle) · G. biennis (Biennial Beeblossom) · G. boquillensis (Rio Grande Beeblossom) · G. brachycarpa (Plains Beeblossom) · G. calcicola (Texas Beeblossom) · G. coccinea (Scarlet Beeblossom) · G. coccinea var. integerrima (Wild Honeysuckle) · G. demareei (Demaree's Beeblossom) · G. drummondii (Drummond's Beeblossom) · G. filipes (Slender-Stalked Gaura) · G. hexandra (Harlequin Bush) · G. hexandra gracilis (Harlequin Bush) · G. hexandra hexandra (Harlequin-Bush) · G. hexandra subsp. gracilis (Harlequin Bush) · G. lindheimeri (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Ballerina Blush' (Apple Blossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Blushing Butterflies' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Cherry Brandy' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Corrie's Gold' (Corrie's Gold Variegated Wandflower) · G. lindheimeri 'Crimson Butterflies' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Dauphine' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'My Melody' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Passionate Pink' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Passionate Rainbow' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Perky Pink' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Pink Cloud' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri'Pink Fountains' (Pink Fountains Wand Flower) · G. lindheimeri 'Pink Fountain' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Pink Lady' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Siskiyou Pink' (Siskiyou Pink Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'So White' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Stratosphere Pink Picotee' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Stratosphere White' (Stratosphere White Butterfly Flower) · G. lindheimeri 'Sunny Butterflies' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'Walgaupf' (Pink Fountains Gaura) · G. lindheimeri 'Walgauws' (White Fountains Gaura) · G. lindheimeri 'Whirling Butterflies' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. lindheimeri 'White Fountain' (Appleblossom Grass) · G. longiflora (Beeblossom) · G. ludoviciana (Louisiana Beeblossom) · G. macrocarpa (Trans-Pecos Butterfly-Weed) · G. mckelveyae (Mckelvey's Beeblossom) · G. mollis (Smallflowered Gaura) · G. neomexicana (New Mexico Beeblossom) · G. neomexicana coloradensis (Colorado Butterfly Plant) · G. neomexicana neomexicana (New Mexico Beeblossom) · G. neomexicana subsp. coloradensis (Colorado Beeblossom) · G. sinuata (Wavy-Leaf Butterfly-Weed) · G. suffulta nealleyi (Bee Blossom) · G. suffulta suffulta (Kisses) · G. suffulta subsp. nealleyi (Nealley's Kisses) · G. triangulata (Prairie Beeblossom) · G. villosa parksii (Woolly Beeblossom) · G. villosa villosa (Woolly Beeblossom) · G. villosa subsp. parksii (Parks' Beeblossom) · G. 'Karalee Petite Pink' (Gaura Hybrid) · G. 'Karalee White' (Gaura Hybrid)
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- Small, J. K. Flora of the southeastern United States;being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolin, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana and the Indian territory and in Oklahoma and Texas east of the one-hundredth meridian /by John Kunkel Small. .. 1903 New York: The author, 1903. url p. 848.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 02, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Colorado Museum, Zoological specimens
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2651525
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-27646
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481042
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:612710-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 316693
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 27646
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 612710-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDONA08060
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GAOD2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 40426
- Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch, Peter H. Raven, David E. Boufford & Warren L. Wagner "Onagraceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 274, 290, 400. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Jiarui Chen, Peter C. Hoch & Warren L. Wagner "Gaura". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 400, 427. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 1,155.420 meters (3,790.748 feet), Standard Deviation = 693.340 based on 768 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]