Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Bengali:
Common Names in Burmese:
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Ceylon Camboge, Gamboge, Gamboge Tree
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Hindi:
Gothaghanba, Tamal, Tamel
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Kannada:
Devanahuli, Hardala, Jarigehuli, Kankutake, Punarapuli, Reval Chinni Mara
Common Names in Malayalam:
Karukkampuli, Pinnarpuli, Pulijakka, Valakkana
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Kankustha, Lokaskandha, Tamala, Tapinja, Tapitha
Common Names in Sinhalese:
Gokatoo Gas, Goraka, Kana Goraka Gas, Kokatiya
Common Names in Tamil:
Cikiri, Iravalsinni, Ireevalsinni, Irevarcinni, Kotukkaypuli
Common Names in Telugu:
Karukkampuli, Pasupuvarene, Revalchinni
, usually with yellow latex. Terminal
bud functional; buds usually lacking scales
. Leaves opposite [or rarely whorled
], very rarely stipulate
, entire, leathery to papery
, usually glabrous
; secondary veins usually prominent
to few, oblique
to perpendicular to midvein
; tertiary veins reticulate, with adaxial
brownish transvenous resin canals [or much branched] and abaxial
or much branched] or intervenous
often with basal liguliform appendage
. Plant functionally dioecious (sometimes apparently flowers bisexual
or plant monoecious), flowers in terminal and/or axillary
cymes (often thyrsiform), triads
or fascicles, or paired
or solitary. Sepals [2 or 3 or]4 or 5, decussate or imbricate (quincuncial), free
[or very rarely completely connate
in bud]. Petals [3 or]4 or 5[-8], fascicles each with many to few stamens with filaments
almost free to completely united
, or ± completely connate [or adnate
to petals], with anthers
1, 2, 4 or many-celled, basifixed
or variously united; fasciclodes (sterile
stamen fascicles) 4 or 5, antisepalous
and free or ± united or absent; pistillode
present or absent. Female flowers: staminode fascicles as for staminate flowers
but smaller or staminodes apparently free; fasciclodes free as in male flower but smaller or united in a ring
of ovary or absent; stigmas free or ± united, peltate, 2-5-lobed or entire. Berry smooth
or rarely secondarily dehiscent
], with leathery to thin exocarp
and 1-5 or sometimes more seeds embedded
in endocarpic pulp. Seeds large; hypocotyl massive.
About 450 species: tropical and S Africa, Madagascar, tropical Asia, NE Australia, W Polynesia, tropical America; 20 species (13 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
The fruit of most species in this genus are edible, among them, those of Garcinia mangostana are famous. The seeds yield more than 15% oil . The yellow resin of some species is used as a medicine. Species like G. hanburyi J. D. Hooker provide medicinal resin and yellow dyes of the best quality. The timber of many species is used for building houses or making furniture.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1993
- Order: Malpighiales () - C. Martius, 1835
- Superorder: Theanae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1993
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Hort. ex Boerl. Publication : Cat. Hort. Bogor. 72
Members of the genus Garcinia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. capuronii (Tin Can Bay Whiting) · G. dulcis (Gourka) · G. hanburyi (Hanbury's Garcinia) · G. hessii (Lemon Saptree) · G. hombroniana (Luli) · G. indica (Garcinia) · G. intermedia (Monkey Fruit) · G. kola (Garcinia) · G. lateriflora (Garcinia) · G. livingstonei (African Mangosteen) · G. lowryi (Clanwilliam Redfin) · G. mangostana (Manggis) · G. morella (Ceylon Camboge) · G. multiflora (Garcinia) · G. myrtifolia (Garcinia) · G. portoricensis (Bakupari) · G. prainiana (Button Mangosteen) · G. schomburgkiana (Madan) · G. spicata (Gamboge Tree) · G. xanthochymus (False Mangosteen)
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- A handbook of systematic botany; with a revision of the fungi, by E. Knoblauch; tr. and ed. by M.C. Potter. London, Swan url p. 414.
- A handbook of tropical gardening and planting, with special reference to Ceylon, by H. F. Macmillan. .. Colombo, H.W. Cave & co., 1914. url .
- A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of by Rev. James Stormonth Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart, 1885 url p. 174.
- A study of some characteristics of vegetable oils, by James B. McNair. 9 1930 Chicago, 1930. url p. 57, p. 60.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 111, p. 155.
- Ad orientem. By A.D. Frederickson, F.R.G.S. With illustrations from the author's sketch-book. London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1889. url p. 274, p. 386.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 88.
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 507.
- Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya. Colombo: Skien; 1901-1924. url p. 274.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url .
- Botany for academies and colleges: consisting of plant development and structure from seaweed to clematis, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott company, 1889. url .
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 104, p. 117, p. 23, p. 57, p. 66.
- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 179, p. 239, p. 240.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url , , .
- Catalogue of economic plants in the collection of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1891. url .
- Catalogue of the collections in the museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain compiled by E.M. Holmes. London, The Society, 1878. url p. 13.
- Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago, Manila, Bureau of printing, 1910. url p. 373.
- Chinese materia medica. extensively revised from F. Porter Smith's work by G. A. Stuart. Shanghai?: Presbyterian Mission Press?, 1911? url p. 182.
- Coloring matters for foodstuffs and methods for their detection. . .. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1905 url p. 10.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 111.
- Flora of the Presidency of Madras / by J.S. Gamble. London: West, Newman and Adlard, 1915- url p. 73.
- Glimpses into the life of Indian plants: an elementary Indian botany / by I. Pfleiderer. Mangalore: Basel Mission Book and Tract Depository, 1916. url p. 233.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 31.
- Journal and proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 3 1907 Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal. url p. 257, p. 258, p. cvi.
- Manual of tropical and subtropical fruits, excluding the banana, coconut, pineapple, citrus fruits, olive, and fig, by Wilson Popenoe. .. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1920. url p. 399, p. 399.
- Nature Reserves of the Himalaya and the Mountains of Central Asia IUCN url p. 108, p. 465.
- Nature. London, Macmillan. url p. 154, p. 190.
- Ornamental gardening in Florida, by Charles Torrey Simpson; a treatise on the decorative plants adapted to Florida and their cultivation, with suggestions for the ornamentation of Florida homes and grounds. Little River, Fla., The author, 1916. url p. 135, p. 192, p. 192.
- Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1859: agriculture. Washington, D.C.: George Bowman, printer, 1860. url p. 339.
- Science papers, chiefly pharmacological and botanical. By Daniel Hanbury. .. Ed., with memoir, by Joseph Ince. .. London, Macmillan, 1876. url p. 329.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 235.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 555.
- The Hawaiian forester and agriculturist. Honolulu: Hawaiian Gazette Co., 1904-1933. url , p. 126.
- The Journal of heredity. Washington, etc., American Genetic Association url p. 347.
- The Philippine journal of science. 3 1908 Manila. url p. 359.
- The chemical synthesis of vital products and the interrelations between organic compounds / By Raphael Meldola. London: E. Arnold, 1904. url p. 313, p. 42.
- The commercial products of India: being an abridgment of The dictionary of the economic products of India / by Sir George Watt; published under the authority of His Majesty's secretary of state for India in council. London: J. Murray, 1908. url p. 554.
- The desert world. From the French of Arthur Mangin. Edited and enlarged by the translator of "The bird, by Michelet." With 160 illustrations by W. Freeman, Foulquier, and Yan Dargent. London, T. Nelson, 1869. url p. 415.
- The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry. New York, Interscience Publishers, 1951-57. url p. 899.
- The medicinal plants of the PHilippines, by T. H. Pardo de Tavera. .. tr. and rev. by Jerome B. Thomas, jr. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.1901. url , , .
- The medicinal plants of the Philippines / by T. H. Pardo de Tavera; translated and revised by Jerome B. Thomas. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co., 1901. url p. 36, p. 37, p. xiii.
- The natural history review. Dublin: Hodges & Smith, 1854-1865. url p. 191.
- The tropical agriculturist. Colombo, Ceylon: A.M. & J. Ferguson, 1882- url p. 262.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 24 1864 London: [The Society], 1791-1875. url p. 489.
- Tropical agriculture: the climate, soils, cultural methods, crops, live stock, commercial importance and opportunities of the tropics / London: D. Appleton and Company, 1916. url .
- Tropical agriculture; the climate, soils, cultural methods, crops, live stock, commercial importance and opportunities of the tropics / by Earley Vernon Wilcox. London: D. Appleton and Company, 1916. url p. 232.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1672384
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:428103-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 428102-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1233556