Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Garcinia, Brindonia Tallow, Goa-Butter, Indian Berry, Indian Tallow Tree, Kokam, Kokum, Red Mango
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Gujarati:
Common Names in Hindi:
Bhirand Kokum, Kokam, Ratambi
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Kannada:
Dhupadamara, Murgala, Murginahali, Murginahulimara, Punarpuli, Ratambi, Tittidika
Common Names in Malayalam:
Common Names in Marathi:
Bhirand, Kokam, Kokambi
Common Names in Sanskrit:
, usually with yellow latex. Terminal
bud functional; buds usually lacking scales
. Leaves opposite [or rarely whorled
], very rarely stipulate
, entire, leathery to papery
, usually glabrous
; secondary veins usually prominent
to few, oblique
to perpendicular to midvein
; tertiary veins reticulate, with adaxial
brownish transvenous resin canals [or much branched] and abaxial
or much branched] or intervenous
often with basal liguliform appendage
. Plant functionally dioecious (sometimes apparently flowers bisexual
or plant monoecious), flowers in terminal and/or axillary
cymes (often thyrsiform), triads
or fascicles, or paired
or solitary. Sepals [2 or 3 or]4 or 5, decussate or imbricate (quincuncial), free
[or very rarely completely connate
in bud]. Petals [3 or]4 or 5[-8], fascicles each with many to few stamens with filaments
almost free to completely united
, or ± completely connate [or adnate
to petals], with anthers
1, 2, 4 or many-celled, basifixed
or variously united; fasciclodes (sterile
stamen fascicles) 4 or 5, antisepalous
and free or ± united or absent; pistillode
present or absent. Female flowers: staminode fascicles as for staminate flowers
but smaller or staminodes apparently free; fasciclodes free as in male flower but smaller or united in a ring
of ovary or absent; stigmas free or ± united, peltate, 2-5-lobed or entire. Berry smooth
or rarely secondarily dehiscent
], with leathery to thin exocarp
and 1-5 or sometimes more seeds embedded
in endocarpic pulp. Seeds large; hypocotyl massive.
About 450 species: tropical and S Africa, Madagascar, tropical Asia, NE Australia, W Polynesia, tropical America; 20 species (13 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
The fruit of most species in this genus are edible, among them, those of Garcinia mangostana are famous. The seeds yield more than 15% oil . The yellow resin of some species is used as a medicine. Species like G. hanburyi J. D. Hooker provide medicinal resin and yellow dyes of the best quality. The timber of many species is used for building houses or making furniture.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Theanae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1993
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Choisy Publication
: Prodr. (DC.) 1: 561 1824 [mid
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Garcinia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. capuronii (Tin Can Bay Whiting) · G. dulcis (Gourka) · G. hanburyi (Hanbury's Garcinia) · G. hessii (Lemon Saptree) · G. hombroniana (Luli) · G. indica (Garcinia) · G. intermedia (Monkey Fruit) · G. kola (Garcinia) · G. lateriflora (Garcinia) · G. livingstonei (African Mangosteen) · G. lowryi (Clanwilliam Redfin) · G. mangostana (Manggis) · G. morella (Ceylon Camboge) · G. multiflora (Garcinia) · G. myrtifolia (Garcinia) · G. portoricensis (Bakupari) · G. prainiana (Button Mangosteen) · G. schomburgkiana (Madan) · G. spicata (Gamboge Tree) · G. xanthochymus (False Mangosteen)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 297.
- A manual of Indian timbers: an account of the structure, growth, distribution, and qualities of Indian woods. CalcuttaOffice of the Superintendent of Govt. Printing1881 url p. 22.
- A manual of Indian timbers; an account of the growth, distribution, and uses of the trees and shrubs of India and Ceylon with descriptions of their wood-structure, by J. S. Gamble... London: S. Low, Marston & co. ltd., 1902. url p. 51.
- A manual of botany, including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, J & A. Churchill, 1887. url p. 470.
- A study of some characteristics of vegetable oils, by James B. McNair. 9 1930 Chicago, 1930. url p. 56, p. 58.
- A text book of materia medica, being an account of the more important crude drugs of vegetable and animal origin, designed for students of pharmacy and medicine. London, Churchill, 1920. url p. 508.
- A text-book of botany and pharmacognosy: intended for the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharmacists, and a handbook for food and drug analysts / by Henry Kraemer. Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott company[c1910] url p. 336.
- An elementary course of botany: structural, physiological, and systematic / by Arthur Henfrey. London: John Van Voorst, 1878. url p. 228.
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 183.
- Annual report of the Office of Experiment Stations. .. / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington: G.P.O., 1902-1913. url p. 440.
- Applied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for the those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants. New York, Wiley url p. 619.
- Applied and economic botany, especially adapted for the use of students in technical schools, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, and also as a book of reference for chemists, food analysts and students engaged in by Henry Kraemer. .. illustrated with 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures. Philadelphia, The author[c1914] url , p. 619.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 234, p. 59.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 111.
- Flora of the Presidency of Madras / by J.S. Gamble. London: West, Newman and Adlard, 1915- url p. 73.
- Glimpses into the life of Indian plants: an elementary Indian botany / by I. Pfleiderer. Mangalore: Basel Mission Book and Tract Depository, 1916. url p. 18, p. 289.
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 52.
- Journal and proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 3 1907 Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal. url p. 257, p. 259, p. 293, p. cii, p. cxv, p. cxvii.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 38 1900 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 493.
- Nature. London, Macmillan. url , p. 240, p. 28.
- Official guide to the museums of economic botany. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1907 url p. 21.
- Pharmacographia Indica.by William Dymock, C.J.H. Warden, and David Hooper. 1890-1893 London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1893. url p. 27.
- Pharmacographia: a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in Great Britain and British India / by Friedrich A. Flückiger and Daniel Hanbury. London: Macmillan, 1879. url p. 86.
- Report of the proceedings of the third entomological meeting: held at Pusa on the 3rd to 15th February 1919 / edited by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Calcutta: Supt. of Government Printing, 1920. url p. 292, p. 304.
- Report of the proceedings of the. .. Entomological meeting Calcutta;Superintendent government printing, India, 1917-24. url p. 355.
- Sturtevant's notes on edible plants / Edited by U.P. Hedrick. Albany: J.B. Lyon, 1919. url p. 285.
- Systematic list of the trees, shrubs and woody-climbers of the Bombay Presidency / by W.A. Talbot. Bombay: Printed at the Govt. Central Press, 1894. url p. 15.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 39, p. 413.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 320, p. 42.
- The Hawaiian forester and agriculturist. Honolulu: Hawaiian Gazette Co., 1904-1933. url p. 126.
- The Journal of heredity. Washington, etc., American Genetic Association url p. 347, p. 347.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url , p. 100, p. 134, p. 135, p. 136, p. 175.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 14 1875 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 484.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 205, p. 625.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. 1 1875 London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 261, p. 261.
- The flora of the presidency of Bombay / By Theodore Cooke. London: Taylor and Francis, 1903-08. url p. 76.
- The forest trees of Mysore and Coorg. Bangalore, Mysore Govt. Central Press, 1894. url .
- The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry. New York, Interscience Publishers, 1951-57. url p. 899.
- The tropical agriculturist. Colombo, Ceylon: A.M. & J. Ferguson, 1882- url p. 217, p. 531.
- The uses of plants: a manual of economic botany with special reference to vegetable products introduced during the last fifty years / by G. S. Boulger. London: Roper & Drowley, 1889. url p. 130, p. 133, p. 197.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 1016, p. 379, p. 388, p. 547, p. 548, p. 595, p. 627, p. 649, p. 689, p. 690, p. 694, p. 847, p. 955.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647524
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21483
- GRIN Nomen Number: 311275
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21483
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 428006-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GAIN5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37391