Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Azerbaijani:
Common Names in English:
Garcinia, Brindonia Tallow, Goa-Butter, Indian Berry, Indian Tallow Tree, Kokam, Kokum, Red Mango
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Gujarati:
Common Names in Hindi:
Bhirand Kokum, Kokam, Ratambi
Common Names in Indonesian:
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Kannada:
Dhupadamara, Murgala, Murginahali, Murginahulimara, Punarpuli, Ratambi, Tittidika, ಮುರುಗಲ ಹಣ್ಣು
Common Names in Malayalam:
Common Names in Marathi:
Bhirand, Kokam, Kokambi
Common Names in Marathi (Marāṭhī):
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Common Names in Sanskrit (Saṁskṛta):
, usually with yellow latex. Terminal
bud functional; buds usually lacking scales
. Leaves opposite [or rarely whorled
], very rarely stipulate
, entire, leathery to papery
, usually glabrous
; secondary veins usually prominent
to few, oblique
to perpendicular to midvein
; tertiary veins reticulate, with adaxial
brownish transvenous resin canals [or much branched] and abaxial
or much branched] or intervenous
often with basal liguliform appendage
. Plant functionally dioecious (sometimes apparently flowers bisexual
or plant monoecious), flowers in terminal and/or axillary
cymes (often thyrsiform), triads
or fascicles, or paired
or solitary. Sepals [2 or 3 or]4 or 5, decussate or imbricate (quincuncial), free
[or very rarely completely connate
in bud]. Petals [3 or]4 or 5[-8], fascicles each with many to few stamens with filaments
almost free to completely united
, or ± completely connate [or adnate
to petals], with anthers
1, 2, 4 or many-celled, basifixed
or variously united; fasciclodes (sterile
stamen fascicles) 4 or 5, antisepalous
and free or ± united or absent; pistillode
present or absent. Female flowers: staminode fascicles as for staminate flowers
but smaller or staminodes apparently free; fasciclodes free as in male flower but smaller or united in a ring
of ovary or absent; stigmas free or ± united, peltate, 2-5-lobed or entire. Berry smooth
or rarely secondarily dehiscent
], with leathery to thin exocarp
and 1-5 or sometimes more seeds embedded
in endocarpic pulp. Seeds large; hypocotyl massive.
About 450 species: tropical and S Africa, Madagascar, tropical Asia, NE Australia, W Polynesia, tropical America; 20 species (13 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
The fruit of most species in this genus are edible, among them, those of Garcinia mangostana are famous. The seeds yield more than 15% oil . The yellow resin of some species is used as a medicine. Species like G. hanburyi J. D. Hooker provide medicinal resin and yellow dyes of the best quality. The timber of many species is used for building houses or making furniture.
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Choisy Publication
: Prodr. (DC.) 1: 561 1824 [mid
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Garcinia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 22 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
G. capuronii (Tin Can Bay Whiting) · G. dulcis (Gourka) · G. gummi-gutta (Gambooge) · G. hanburyi (Hanbury's Garcinia) · G. hessii (Lemon Saptree) · G. hombroniana (Luli) · G. indica (Garcinia) · G. intermedia (Monkey Fruit) · G. kola (Garcinia) · G. lateriflora (Garcinia) · G. livingstonei (African Mangosteen) · G. lowryi (Clanwilliam Redfin) · G. madruno (Charichuelo) · G. mangostana (Manggis) · G. morella (Ceylon Camboge) · G. multiflora (Garcinia) · G. myrtifolia (Garcinia) · G. portoricensis (Bakupari) · G. prainiana (Button Mangosteen) · G. schomburgkiana (Madan) · G. spicata (Gamboge Tree) · G. xanthochymus (False Mangosteen)
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- A study of some characteristics of vegetable oils, by James B. McNair. 9 1930 Chicago, 1930. url p. 56, p. 58.
- A text book of materia medica, being an account of the more important crude drugs of vegetable and animal origin, designed for students of pharmacy and medicine. London, Churchill, 1920. url p. 508.
- A text-book of botany and pharmacognosy: intended for the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharmacists, and a handbook for food and drug analysts / by Henry Kraemer. Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott company[c1910] url p. 336.
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- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 183.
- Annual report of the Office of Experiment Stations. .. / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington: G.P.O., 1902-1913. url p. 440.
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- Applied and economic botany, especially adapted for the use of students in technical schools, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, and also as a book of reference for chemists, food analysts and students engaged in by Henry Kraemer. .. illustrated with 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures. Philadelphia, The author[c1914] url , p. 619.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 234, p. 59.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 111.
- Flora of the Presidency of Madras / by J.S. Gamble. London: West, Newman and Adlard, 1915- url p. 73.
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- Nature. London, Macmillan. url , p. 240, p. 28.
- Official guide to the museums of economic botany. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1907 url p. 21.
- Pharmacographia Indica.by William Dymock, C.J.H. Warden, and David Hooper. 1890-1893 London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1893. url p. 27.
- Pharmacographia: a history of the principal drugs of vegetable origin met with in Great Britain and British India / by Friedrich A. Flückiger and Daniel Hanbury. London: Macmillan, 1879. url p. 86.
- Report of the proceedings of the third entomological meeting: held at Pusa on the 3rd to 15th February 1919 / edited by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Calcutta: Supt. of Government Printing, 1920. url p. 292, p. 304.
- Report of the proceedings of the. .. Entomological meeting Calcutta;Superintendent government printing, India, 1917-24. url p. 355.
- Sturtevant's notes on edible plants / Edited by U.P. Hedrick. Albany: J.B. Lyon, 1919. url p. 285.
- Systematic list of the trees, shrubs and woody-climbers of the Bombay Presidency / by W.A. Talbot. Bombay: Printed at the Govt. Central Press, 1894. url p. 15.
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- The Hawaiian forester and agriculturist. Honolulu: Hawaiian Gazette Co., 1904-1933. url p. 126.
- The Journal of heredity. Washington, etc., American Genetic Association url p. 347, p. 347.
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647524
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21483
- GRIN Nomen Number: 311275
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21483
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 428006-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GAIN5
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37391