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Common Names in Dutch:
gewoon krulmos, Krulmos
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Plants minute to medium-sized, gregarious
to forming open tufts, light- to yellow-green, annual
to biennial. Stems short, erect
or with a few branches, central strand present, basal rhizoids few. Leaves usually larger and more crowded distally, often comose
, reduced proximally, usually contorted when dry, spreading
when wet, broadly elliptic
, usually concave
to somewhat incurved
, entire to serrate, sometimes limbate, apex acute to acuminate, rarely somewhat blunt
, costa single, percurrent
to excurrent; distal and median
usually irregular-rhombic to hexagonal or rectangular, smooth
and rather thin-walled, often lax
, weakly chlorophyllose, proximal
cells usually longer
to rectangular, sometimes weakly inflated
at proximal angles, differentiated alar cells
absent. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent. Sexual condition autoicous
, sometimes polygamous, rarely synoicous
. Perigonia terminal
on short basal branches, bud-like, paraphyses yellowish and club-shaped. Perichaetia terminal, paraphyses usually absent and filiform
when present, perichaetial leaves often somewhat enlarged. Seta terminal, solitary, short to elongate
, erect to somewhat curved
, smooth or rarely papillose
. Capsule stegocarpous
to exserted, globose
, sometimes flaring
and nearly smooth to asymmetric
when dry, usually with a neck; exothecial cells thick- to thin-walled; stomata restricted
to neck, consisting of a slit in a rounded
guard cell, superficial or immersed, annulus present or absent, revoluble
, revoluble in fragments, or not; operculum present or absent, flat, conic-rounded, to rostrate
; peristome double
, single, rudimentary
, or absent, exostome
teeth 16, erect to incurved, papillose-striolate or striate, trabeculate
surface, endostome segments 16 and opposite the exostome teeth, cilia absent, represented only by the exostome when single. Calyptra deciduous or persistent
, mitrate to cucullate
, smooth, usually long-rostrate and inflated towards the base
. Spores spherical
or sub-reniform, strongly ornamented to smooth.
Genera ca. 13, species ca. 300 (6 genera, 29 species in the flora ) : worldwide except Antarctica.
The Funariaceae is characterized by broad leaves, large, pale laminal cells, opposite peristomes, and the distinctive stomata. The majority of species are found in disturbed or open sites on bare soil. Many of the species are annuals or biennials, and some may be perennials . When sterile , only a few species have distinctive vegetative features that allow positive identification to genus or species level. Fortunately most are usually fertile and sporophytes are common, although seasonal.
Plants small to medium-sized, gregarious
, bright green to yellowish green. Stems short, erect
except for a short basal antheridial
. Leaves larger and erect distally, reduced proximally, oblong-ovate to broadly obovate
; apex usually acute or acuminate margins
erect, entire to serrate beyond middle
; costa single, ending before the tip
to excurrent; distal and medial
large, rhombic-hexagonal to rectangular, lax
and rather thin-walled, proximal
cells oblong-rectangular, differentiated alar cells
absent. Sexual condition autoicous
; antheridial branches 1-2, basal, perigonial paraphyses clavate
with an enlarged inflated
cell; perichaetia apparently absent paraphyses. Seta elongate
, erect to strongly curved
or twisted. Capsule exserted, usually inclined
to pendent, asymmetric
and usually curved, yellow to brown, pyriform
, often sulcate
when dry and empty, annulus large and revoluble
or not differentiated, exothecial cells oblong-hexagonal to linear
, walls incrassate
especially so on inner tangential wall, stomata immersed
; peristome double
somewhat below the mouth
, teeth well developed, obliquely directed, lance-acuminate, papillose-striate, often strongly trabeculate
, frequently appendiculate
at the tips and fusing with a latticed disk, endostome segments opposite the teeth, 1/6 or more the length
of the teeth, papillose
or weakly papillose-striate with a basal membrane
and cilia absent. Operculum usually oblique
to the axis of the capsule, convex
to weakly conic, cells in obliquely radial
. Calyptra large, cucullate
, usually smooth
, and often long-rostrate. Spores spherical
, smooth or papillose to baccate-insulate.
Species ca. 200: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia (including Indonesia), Africa, Pacific Islands, Australia.
Funaria comprises mainly small to medium seasonal mosses growing on moist mineral or peaty soils in strong light. For the most part, they are relatively short-lived pioneer species adapted to complete the life cycle by producing many spores quickly, in a cool, moist, bright (but not sunny for long periods), exposed, disturbed habitat . In North America, the best time to look for members of the family is spring before the soil dries out. The most common species can be recognized by the production of large numbers of sporophytes bearing a double peristome with inner and outer teeth opposite rather than alternate as is typical for most mosses. The teeth tend to be torqued in one direction with the tips of the exostome adhering weakly to a few-celled disk. Because the sporophyte shows more morphologic diversity than the gametophyte, it is often essential for identification. H. A. Crum and L. E. Anderson (1981) discussed the indistinct generic limits between Funaria and Entosthodon and the application of generic names .
Species Funaria hygrometrica
Plants 4-10 or more mm, with a basal antheridial
green to yellowish green; leafless proximally with leaves crowded
and bulbiform distally, sometimes laxly foliate
smaller proximally, distal leaves 2-4 mm, deeply concave
to broadly obovate
distally, acute to apiculate
entire or weakly serrulate
distally; costa subpercurrent to short-excurrent;
distal laminal cells
thin-walled and inflated
, hexagonal or oblong-hexagonal
becoming much more oblong
proximally. Seta usually (12-) 20-45(-80)
mm, slender and flexuose, usually hygroscopic
. Capsule 2-3.5
to straight, horizontal to pendent
or merely inclined
or nearly erect
, becoming sulcate
when dry below
the strongly oblique
; annulus revoluble
, operculum slightly
; peristome brown, papillose-striate proximally and papillose
distally, strongly trabeculate
, becoming appendiculate
forming a lattice by fusion of the tips
; endostome segments lanceolate
about 2/3 as long as the teeth, yellowish, finely papillose-striate.
. Spores mostly 12-21 µm,
finely papillose. [source]
Funaria hygrometrica is one of the most common, weedy, and widely distributed mosses in the world; its distribution closely parallels that of Bryum argenteum. It is widely illustrated in textbooks to demonstrate the life cycle of a typical moss, possibly because of the abundant conspicuous sporophytes produced and its frequent presence in greenhouses. However, the peristome with opposite, instead of alternate, teeth in the two peristome rows is clearly atypical among the majority of mosses. Most of the varieties that have been described probably do not merit recognition because of the morphological plasticity of the species in response to environmental conditions. [source]
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in P. Ascherson, 1864
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Superorder: Diplolepideae ()
- Subclass: Funariidae ()
- Class: Bryopsida () - - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in P. Ascherson, 1864 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Entosthodon plagiostomus (C. Müller) Sim • Funaria androgyna Bridel • Funaria angustifolia Bridel • Funaria calvescens Schwaegrichen • Funaria campylopus Bridel • Funaria connivens C. Müller • Funaria globicarpa C. Müller • Funaria gracilescens W. P. Schimper Ex C. Müller • Funaria lonchopelma C. Müller • Funaria marginata Kindberg • Funaria megapoda C. Müller • Funaria papillata Hampe • Funaria plagiostoma C. Müller • Funaria ramificans Bridel • Funaria sphaerocarpa C. Müller • Tayloria henryae Dixon
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Funaria
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
F. americana (American Funaria Moss) · F. apiculatopilosa (Apiculate Funaria Moss) · F. arctica (Arctic Funaria Moss) · F. calvescens (Funaria Moss) · F. flavicans (Funaria Moss) · F. groutiana (Funaria Moss) · F. hygrometrica (Funaria Moss) · F. microstoma (Funaria Moss) · F. muhlenbergii (Muhlenberg's Funaria Moss) · F. polaris (Northern Funaria Moss) · F. serrata (Serrate Funaria Moss)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Australian Antarctic Division Herbarium
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem: GEO Biodiversity Day
- British Antarctic Survey: ANTARCTIC PLANT DATABASE
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad: Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México (IE-XAL)
- GBIF-Spain: Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid: MA-Musci
- GBIF-Spain: Universidad de Murcia, Dpto. Biología Vegetal (Botánica), Murcia: MUB-MUSCI
- GBIF-Sweden: Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN)
- GBIF-Sweden: Mosses (S)
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus: The AAU Herbarium Database
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (AMNH)
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (ICEL)
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (Costa Rica): Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales: Plants of Papua New Guinea
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Bryophyte herbarium, Oslo (O)
- The New York Botanical Garden: American Bryophyte Catalog
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain from the British Bryological Society held by BRC
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain held by BRC for compilation
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: MEXU/Colección de Briofitas
- University Museums of Norway (MUSIT)
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3872435
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35145457
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481042
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 15818
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: FUHYU
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 39971
- Terry T. McIntosh "Funariaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 180, 195, 199. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Donna H. Miller, Harvey A. Miller "Funaria". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 10, 11, 12, 13, 181, 188, 189, 192, 193, 203. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 254.850 meters (836.122 feet), Standard Deviation = 469.100 based on 66,308 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]