Common Names in English:
Large Fothergilla, Mountain Witch-Alder, Mountain Witchalder, Witch Alder, Witch-Alder
or deciduous, hermaphroditic
, andromonoecious, or monoecious. Indumentum usually of stellate
or stellate or peltate scales
. Buds perulate or naked. Leaves distichous or spiral
, rarely subopposite or opposite, stipules minute to large, usually paired
(solitary and enclosing bud in Mytilaria, and apparently absent in Rhodoleia) ; petiole
usually well defined; leaf blade
or palmately lobed
, pinnately veined or palmately 3 5-veined. Inflorescences usually spikes or heads
, rarely racemes
or (condensed) thyrses
or panicles, axillary
. Flowers small to medium-sized, bracteate
and often bracteolate
or rarely zygomorphic (Rhodoleia), hypogynous to epigynous
, floral cup
shallow to urn-shaped, sometimes absent; sepals 4 or 5( 10), sometimes absent, imbricate, usually persistent
; petals absent or 4 or 5, yellow, white, greenish or red, often ribbonlike and circinate
in bud, caducous
; stamens 4, 5, or many, free
, rarely arranged in 2 whorls with the inner whorl staminodal, development of polyandrous
androecia centripetal or centrifugal
, thecae mostly bisporangiate
, each opening by two valves
or a simple longitudinal slit, or monosporangiate and opening by a single valve
(Exbucklandia, Hamamelis and the genera of the S hemisphere), connective
protruding; disk scales sometimes present between stamens and carpels. Ovary 2-locular, carpels free at apex; ovules mostly 1 per carpel, less often many, but then most of them sterile
, crassinucellar, bitegmic, anatropous
, halfway between apotropous
, pendent from ovary top if solitary, along the carpellary margins
; placentation axile
. Styles and stigmas 2. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing septicidally, septifragally, or loculicidally and 4-valved; endocarp woody or leathery, usually loose
from leathery exocarp
. Seeds 1 to many per carpel; if solitary then seed coat
thick, hard, smooth
and shiny, black or brown; if numerous then sometimes winged
and only a few viable. Endosperm thin; embryo straight; cotyledons leaflike, radicle short.
About 30 genera and 140 species: E and S Africa (including Madagascar), E, W, and SE Asia, NE Australia, Central, North, and South America, Pacific Islands; 18 genera (four endemic) and 74 species (58 endemic) in China.
Several genera and species need critical revision .
, usually multitrunked, from short stolons, often forming dense clumps
, not aromatic
, leaves, and flower buds stellate-pubescent. Bark
light gray on mature
buds naked, densely stellate-pubescent; terminal
bud short-stalked or sessile, with 2-4 subtending
. Leaves short-petiolate. Leaf blade
, to nearly orbiculate, unlobed, pinnately veined, base
, cuneate, truncate
or serrate-dentate, occasionally undulate
to entire, apex rounded to acute. Inflorescences terminal, elongate
, many flowered, dense spikes, sessile or short-pedunculate. Flowers bisexual
, fragrant, basal flowers functionally staminate
, appearing before leaves; calyx lobes
, minute, irregular, forming shallowly campanulate
hypanthium with adnate
androecium; sepals connate
; petals absent; stamens 12-32, conspicuous
, in centrifugal
sequence on rim
of hypanthium; filaments
white, 4-17 mm, conspicuous, the longest somewhat club-shaped distally; anthers
dehiscing by 2 flaps; staminodes absent; ovary adnate to hypanthium, ca.
1/3 its length
; styles 2, becoming hornlike, with recurved tip
. Capsules in groups of more than 3, stylar
stellate-pubescent mixed with longer
, straight hairs
on calyx rim and distally, loculicidal. Seeds 2 per capsule, reddish brown, glossy, bony, not winged
Species 2: temperate regions , e North America.
The species of Fothergilla are spring-flowering shrubs with inflorescences of apetalous flowers and heads of showy white stamens. Both species are in cultivation. The relationship of Fothergilla to other genera of the Hamamelidaceae is unclear. The genus is restricted to the southeastern United States.
Species Fothergilla major
, 7-65 dm; branches robust
. Leaves: stipules 2.8-7(-10.2) mm;
or somewhat orbiculate
, 2.5-13.5 × 4.2-12.5 cm, base
, rarely cuneate, often oblique
distal margins coarsely sinuate
, rarely entire, apex short-acuminate
to rounded and mucronate
; surfaces abaxially glaucous or green, adaxially
green, both surfaces stellate-pubescent or nearly glabrous
(4-) 5-6(-7) pairs. Inflorescences nearly sessile to short-pedunculate,
3-6 × 2-3 cm. Flowers : calyx lobes
in fruit; stamens
(10-) 22-34; filaments
6-17 mm. Fruiting spikes 3.5-7 × 1.5-2.5
cm. Capsules 5.5-13 mm. Seeds 5-6(-8) mm, apex pointed
. 2 n = 72.
The disjunct occurrence of Fothergilla major in Arkansas is a recent discovery. [source]
Habit: Round , multi-stemmed deciduous shrub .
Flowers: Fragrant white flowers April-May. • Bloom Period: February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Foliage: Summer foliage: Blue-green leaves. • Fall foliage: Orange and scarlet.
Size: 6' tall and as wide.
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Well-drained with organic matter. • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun to part shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Hamamelidaceae () - R. Brown, 1818 - witch hazel
- Order: Saxifragales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Hamamelidanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Hamamelididae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Fothergilla monticola Ashe
: Lodd. Publication
: Bot. Cab. i. 1520
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Fothergilla
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
F. gardenii (Dwarf Fothergilla) · F. gardenii 'Blue Mist' (Blue Mist Dwarf Witch Alder) · F. gardenii 'Harold Epstein' (Dwarf Fothergilla) · F. gardenii 'Jane Platt' (Dwarf Fothergilla) · F. gardenii 'Mt. Airy' (Mt. Airy Fothergilla) · F. gardenii 'Windy City' (Fothergilla) · F. major (Large Fothergilla) · F. major 'Blue Shadow' (Blue Shadow Witch Alder) · F. major 'Mt. Airy' (Mount Airy Fothergilla) · F. major 'Sea Spray' (Large Fothergilla) · F. mirabilis (Camasey Cuatrocanales) · F. monticola (Alabama Fothergilla) · F. 'Mt. Airy' (Large Fothergilla)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645763
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19030
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13731254
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:430662-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 400607
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19030
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 430662-1
- MoBot NameID: 15100005
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDHAM01020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: FOMA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 39788
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