Common Names in English:
Narrowleaf Yellowtops, Yellow-Top Flaveria, Yellowtop
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, or subshrubs
, to 200+ cm [trees
to 400 cm] (usually ± succulent, herbage
usually glaucous). Stems (often purplish) erect
, branched distally or ± throughout. Leaves cauline; opposite (decussate) ; petiolate
or sessile (weakly connate
) ; blades
(often 3-nerved) oblong-ovate to lanceolate or linear
entire, serrate, or spinulose-serrate, faces
or short-pubescent. Heads radiate
, usually in tight or loose
aggregations in (often flat-topped) ± corymbiform
arrays or glomerules
. Involucres oblong
, or turbinate
, 0.5-2 mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 2-6(-9) in ± 1 series (linear, concave
, or boat-shaped
). Receptacles convex
, epaleate ("receptacles" of glomerules sometimes setose
). Ray florets 0-1(-2), pistillate
; corollas yellow or whitish (laminae
inconspicuous). Disc florets 1-15, bisexual
, fertile; corollas yellow, tubes
shorter than to about equaling funnelform
5, ± deltate. Cypselae (black) weakly compressed
, narrowly oblanceolate
or linear-oblong (usually 10-nerved, glabrous) ; pappi usually 0, sometimes persistent, of 2-4 hyaline
, or coroniform
(of connate scales). x = 18.
Species 21: United States, Mexico, West Indies (Greater Antilles), Central America, South America, Asia (India), Africa, Australia.
Members of Flaveria are frequently found in alkaline , saline, and gypseous soils, often in disturbed and moist areas. Heads of Flaveria may be either radiate or discoid; when both are present in the same capitulescence , the discoid heads tend to be central and the radiate heads peripheral. Many species of Flaveria have persistent sheathing leaf bases that ring the stems after the leaves have fallen.
Flaveria is notable because certain species exhibit C3 photosynthesis, some C3-C4 (intermediate) photosynthesis, and others (F. brownii, F. bidentis, F. campestris, and F. trinervia in the United States) classic C4 photosynthesis.
Species Flaveria linearis
, 30-80 cm (glabrous
, mostly on distal
peduncles). Stems erect
. Leaves sessile; blades
50-100(-130) × 1-4(-15) mm, ± connate
or spinulose-serrulate. Heads 10-150+, in clusters
arrays. Calyculi of 1-3 linear bractlets 1-2.5 mm.
oblong-angular, 3.3-4.5 mm . Phyllaries 5(-6), linear or oblong
Ray florets 0 or 1; laminae
2-3 mm. Disc florets (2-) 5-7(-8) ; corolla tubes
, becoming funnelform-campanulate apically,
1-1.5 mm. Cypselae linear, 1.2-1.8 mm; pappi 0. 2n
= 36. [source]
Flaveria linearis is variable; it typically has linear leaves, calyculi of relatively short, linear bractlets, and oblong-angular involucres. The heads are relatively small with 5-8 florets , and throats of the disc corollas are tubular at the base , abruptly expanding distally to become funnelform-campanulate. Plants of this species, the most common Flaveria in Florida, occur throughout most of the Florida peninsula, often near the coast. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 24-36" tall.
Disturbed sites, beaches, hammocks , pinelands; 0-10(-20+) m (Ref. 100563).
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of -154 meters (-504 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Flaveria ×latifolia (J. R. Johnston) R. W. long & E. L. Rhamstine • Flaveria latifolia (J. R. Johnston) Long & Rhamstine
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: CONABIO, Caribbean Checklist , Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, MesoAmericana, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:51370DCA-3DDD-4CF4-AFBC-DFF2A51256A7
Last scrutiny: 13-Aug-09
Members of the genus Flaveria
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 9 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
F. bidentis (Coastal-Plain Flaveria) · F. brownii (Brown's Flaveria) · F. campestris (Alkali Yellowtops) · F. chlorifolia (Clasping Flaveria) · F. floridana (Florida Flaveria) · F. haumanii (Spinyface Soldier) · F. linearis (Narrowleaf Yellowtops) · F. macdougalii (Grand Canyon Flaveria) · F. trinervia (Clustered Flaveria)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 10, 2007:
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2667125
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-18025
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13759544
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:208011-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 413073
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 502630
- MoBot NameID: 2726310
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST3V060
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: FLLA2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38615
- Sharon C. Yarborough, A. Michael Powell "Flaveria". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 245, 247, 248, 249, 250. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 391.390 based on 43 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]