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Flacourtia indica

(Batoko Palm)


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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Afrikaans:


Common Names in Bengali, Bangla:


Common Names in Burmese:

Nayuwai, Naywe

Common Names in Chinese:

Ci Li Mu, Nuo Nuo Guo (As F Ramontchii)

Common Names in English:

Batoko Palm, Batoka Plum, Batoko Plum, Batoko-Plum, Botoko Plum, Ceyon Plum, Governor´s Plum, Governor´s-Plum, Governor's Plum, Governors Plum, Indian Plum, Indian-Plum, Madagascar Plum, Madagascar-Plum, Mauritius Plum, Paniala, Ramontchi, Rhodesia Plum

Common Names in French:

Grosse Prune-Café, Jujube Malgache Prune Malgache, Marromse, Prune Pays, Prunier De Madagascar

Common Names in German:

Batokopflaume, Echte Flacourtie, Madagaskarpflaume, Ramontchi

Common Names in Hindi:

Bilangra, Kakein, Kañcu, Kandai, Katai, Kondai (As F Sepiaria), Kondari (As F Sepiaria), Kukai, िबलानगरा

Common Names in Japanese:

Indo Rukamu, Ramonchii

Common Names in Laotian:

Mak Ken, Mak Keng

Common Names in Malay:

Duri Rukem (Indonesia), Ganda Rukem (Indonesia), Kerkup Kechil, Rukam Sepat, Rukem Mincid (Indonesia)

Common Names in Malayalam:

Kurumuli, അഘോരി

Common Names in Portuguese:

Ameixa Da Mauricia, Ameixa De Madagáscar, Ameixa-De-Madagascar, Cerezo Del Gobernador

Common Names in Russian:

Флакуртия индийская

Common Names in Sanskrit:


Common Names in Shona:


Common Names in Sinhalese:


Common Names in Spanish:

Ciruela De Madagascar, Ciruela Del Gobernador, Ciruela Gobernadora, Ciruela Governadora, Ramontchi

Common Names in Swahili:

Mchongoma, Mgo, Michongoma, Mkingii, Mkingila, Mkingili, Mugovigovi, Ngovigovi

Common Names in Tagalog:

Bitongol, Bolong, Palutan

Common Names in Tamil:

Cottaikkalaa, Malukkarai, Sottaikala

Common Names in Telugu:

Kanaregu (As F Sepiaria), Kandregu (As F Sepiaria), Pulivelaga (As F Sepiaria)

Common Names in Thai:

Ma Kwen Pa (Northern Thailand), Ta Khop Pa (Central Thailand), ตะขบป่า


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Physical Description

Species Flacourtia indica

Shrubs or small trees , 2-4 m tall, deciduous; bark gray-yellow, fissured , flaky ; old branches usually not spiny ; young branches with axillary , simple spines; branchlets puberulous or subglabrous. Petiole red, short, 3-5 mm, puberulous; leaf blade greenish abaxially, deep green adaxially, rose red when young, obovate to oblong-obovate, 2-4 × 1.5-3 cm, thickly papery , abaxially glabrous or sparsely pubescent , hairs spreading and short, adaxially glabrous, midvein raised abaxially, flat adaxially, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, reticulate veins conspicuous, base mostly acute to obtuse , margin serrulate above middle , apex rounded , sometimes retuse . Inflorescences axillary or terminating short lateral twigs, racemose, short; rachis 0.5-2 cm, puberulous. Pedicels 3-5 mm, puberulous, hairs spreading. Sepals 5 or 6, ovate , ca. 1.5 mm, outside glabrous or with a few scattered short hairs, inside sparsely to densely pubescent, margin white ciliate in dried material , apex obtuse. Staminate flowers : stamen filaments 2-2.5 mm, pubescent or less often glabrous. Pistillate flowers: ovary globose , placentas 5 or 6; styles 5 or 6, united only at base, radiating, 1-2 mm, slender. Fruit dull to blackish red, globose, 8-10 mm in diam., longitudinally 5- or 6-angled, styles persistent . Seeds 5 or 6. Fl. Jan-Mar, fr. Mar-Jul. [source]

The taxonomy of Flacourtia indica is complex . Some authors have treated the species in a broad sense, and include in synonymy not only F. ramontchi (see below) but also several other entities found across tropical Asia and Africa. For an introduction to the problem, see Matthew (Fl. Tamilnadu Carnatic 3(1) : 59-61. 1983), Mitra (in Sharma et al. , Fl. India 2: 402-403. 1993), Sleumer (Fl. Males., ser. 1, 5(1) : 76-77. 1954), and Verdcourt (in Dassanayake & Clayton, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 10: 222-224. 1996). Some of the taxonomic confusion might be due to a loss of significant field characters during the preparation of herbarium material (Verdcourt, loc. cit. ). In the present account, F. ramontchi is treated as a separate species because, on the evidence of herbarium material at PE, it seems to be a distinct and recognizable entity within China. Descriptions of F. ramontchi vary; for example, compare that below with Matthew (loc. cit.). [source]

Habit: Tree , Shrub


Broad-leaved forests ; sea level to 1400 m. [1].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,107 meters (0 to 6,913 feet).[2]


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Duration: Perennial


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Flacourtia parvifolia Merrill. • Gmelina indica N. L. Burman


Basionym : Lamiaceae Gmelina indica Burm.f.

Basionym author: (Burm.f.)

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Flacourtia

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

F. flexuosa (Brushholly) · F. indica (Batoko Palm) · F. inermis (Batoko Plum) · F. jangomas (Indian Plum) · F. ramontchii (Madagascar Plum) · F. rukam (Rukam) · F. rukam var. myriantha (Rukam) · F. sapida (Governors Plum)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:



  1. "Flacourtia indica". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 119, 120. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
  2. Mean = 666.960 meters (2,188.189 feet), Standard Deviation = 898.330 based on 142 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2015-01-30