Common Names in English:
(or woody vines
in Cardiospermum and allied genera), rarely herbaceous climbers
. Indumentum usually of simple
, often glandular
on young parts, buds, and inflorescences. Leaves alternate, usually estipulate; leaf blade
pinnate or digitate, rarely simple; leaflets
alternate to opposite, entire or dentate
to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal
; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual
, rarely polygamous or bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually small. Sepals 4 or 5(or 6), equal or unequal, free
, imbricate or valvate
. Petals 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes absent, free, imbricate, usually clawed, often with scales
or hair-tufted basal appendages
. Disk conspicuous
, rarely absent. Stamens 5-10(-74), usually 8, rarely numerous
, variously inserted
but usually within disk, often exserted in male flowers; filaments
free, rarely connate; anthers
, longitudinally dehiscent
; staminodes sometimes present in carpellate
flowers, but filaments shorter and anthers with a thick wall, indehiscent. Ovary superior, (1-) 3(or 4) -loculed; ovules 1 or 2(or several) per locule, placentation axile
, rarely parietal
, campylotropous, or amphitropous
; style usually apical (terminal), semigynobasic in Allophylus [gynobasic
in Deinbollia Schumacher & Thonning]; stigma entire or 2 or 3(or 4) -lobed, usually rudimentary
in male flowers. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe, or consisting of 2 or 3 samaras, often 1-seeded and 1-loculed by abortion
. Seeds 1(or 2 or more) per locule; testa black or brown, hard, often with a conspicuous fleshy aril or sarcotesta
; embryo curved
, or twisted, oily and starchy; endosperm usually absent. 2n = 20-36.
One hundred thirty-five genera and ca. 1500 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, especially well represented in tropical SE Asia; 21 genera (one endemic) and 52 species (16 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
There is some variation in the circumscription of Sapindaceae in taxonomic treatments, particularly with regard to the inclusion of genera from the closely related, predominately temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Several studies including Müller and Leenhouts (in Ferguson & Müller, Evolutionary Significance Exine: 407-445. 1976), and more recently those based on molecular data (Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2001 onward; Harrington et al. , Syst. Bot. 30: 366-382. 2005), supported the recognition of a broadly defined Sapindaceae incorporating Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Harrington et al. (loc. cit. ) proposed four subfamilies or clades, comprising Sapindoideae (including
Koelreuteria and Ungnadia Endlicher), Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae (including taxa previously referred to Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, plus Handeliodendron), and a monotypic "Xanthoceratoideae". Within Hippocastanoideae, Acer Linnaeus and Dipteronia Oliver comprise a monophyletic group and are treated in this Flora as Aceraceae. Similarly, Aesculus Linnaeus, Billia Peyritsch, and the Chinese endemic Handeliodendron Rehder form a monophyletic group and are treated here as Hippocastanaceae. There is some support for "Xanthoceratoideae" being the first lineage to diverge within the broadly defined Sapindaceae assemblage; consequently, Xanthoceras is treated separately from genera in Sapindoideae and Dodonaeoideae in the following account of Sapindaceae s.s. The sequence of genera reflects Müller and Leenhouts (loc. cit.) as modified by recent analyses based on molecular and morphological data, rather than following the order developed by Radlkofer (Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379. 1890; and in Engler, Pflanzenreich 98a-h(IV . 165) : 1-1539. 1931-1934), which was previously followed in FRPS.
The main economic uses of this family include (1) timber: Amesiodendron chinense, Dimocarpus longan, D. confinis, Litchi chinensis, Pavieasia kwangsiensis, and Pometia pinnata; (2) fruit: Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Nephelium lappaceum; (3) medicine: Dimocarpus longan (arillode ), Litchi chinensis (seeds), and Sapindus saponaria (roots ) ; (4) oil : Amesiodendron chinense, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Xanthoceras sorbifolium. Saponins occur widely in the family, commonly used as a fish poison and for their detergent properties.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 20-30' tall.
Soil: Minimum pH: 8.6 • Maximum pH: 9.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Thwaites Publication
: Enum. Pl. Zeyl. [Thwaites]
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 04-May-2001
Members of the genus Filicium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 358, p. 379, p. 415, p. 44.
- A handbook of tropical gardening and planting, with special reference to Ceylon, by H. F. Macmillan. .. Colombo, H.W. Cave & co., 1914. url , p. 308, p. 450, p. 452, p. 463, p. 566.
- A manual of Indian timbers: an account of the structure, growth, distribution, and qualities of Indian woods. CalcuttaOffice of the Superintendent of Govt. Printing1881 url p. 68.
- A manual of gardening for Bengal and Upper India. By Thomas A. C. Firminger. .. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink and co.; [etc., etc.]1874. url p. 327.
- A manual of the timbers of the world: their characteristics and uses: to which is appended an account by S. Fitzgerald of the artificial seasoning of timber. London: Macmillan, 1920. url , .
- A systematic catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to or growing wild in Ceylon. Colombo: G. J. A. Skeen, 1885. url .
- Annales du Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg. 26 1912 Leiden [etc.]: E. J. Brill [etc.] url p. 216, p. 217.
- Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago, Manila, Bureau of printing, 1910. url p. 234.
- Cocoa. By Dr. C. J. J. van Hall. London: Macmillan and Co., limited, 1914. url p. 100, p. 510.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 363, p. 407, p. 408, p. 531.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 60.
- Designing an optimum protected areas system for Sri Lanka's natural forests. Volume 1 Sri Lanka Forest Dept. url p. 22.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 435, p. 445, p. 754, p. 755.
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 617.
- Flora of the Presidency of Madras / by J.S. Gamble. London: West, Newman and Adlard, 1915- url p. 249.
- IUCN Directory of Afrotropical Protected Areas IUCN, UNEP url p. 966.
- Index of plants. 1912. Singapore, Printed at the Methodist Publishing House, 1912. url .
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 188.
- Lectures on plant physiology. Authorized English translation by R.J. Harvey Gibson. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907. url p. 104.
- List of trees, shrubs, and principal climbers, etc., recorded from Burma: with vernacular names / by J.H. Lace. Rangoon, Burma: Supt., Govt. Print., 1922. url p. 41.
- Official guide to the Botanic Gardens, Dominica: illustrated: with an index of the principal plants. Dominica: The Garden, 1922? url p. 35.
- Spolia zeylanica. S.l.: s.n. url .
- Technical series. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1895-1915. url p. 87.
- The Coccidae of Ceylon. By E. Ernest Green. .. London, Dulau & Co., ltd., 1896-1922. url p. 413.
- The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Africa IUCN url p. 207.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 263, p. 300, p. 439, p. 631, p. 720.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 268.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 24 1888 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 154, p. 480.
- The National Collection of Coccidae / by C.L. Marlatt. Washington: G.P.O., 1908. url p. 87.
- The Philippine journal of science. Manila: Bureau of Science url p. 234, p. 475, p. 576.
- The flora of the presidency of Bombay / By Theodore Cooke. London: Taylor and Francis, 1903-08. url .
- The flora sylvatica for southern India: containing quarto plates of all the principal timber trees in southern India and Ceylon, accompanied by a botanical manual, with descriptions of every known tree and shrub, and analysis of every genus Madras, Printed by Gantz Brothers[1869-73] url p. 129.
- The forest trees of Mysore and Coorg. Bangalore, Mysore Govt. Central Press, 1894. url .
- The gardens' bulletin, Straits Settlements. Singapore: Straits Times Press, 1913-1941. url p. 201.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 1017, p. 505, p. 661, p. 806, p. 827, p. 962.
- Lo Hsien-shui & Chen Te-chao. 1985. Sapindaceae (excluding Handeliodendron). In: Law Yuh-wu & Lo Hsien-shui, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 47(1): 1-72.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 02, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 4 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 02, 2008:
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652205
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28682
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 128045-1
- MoBot NameID: 28600564
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 447073