with heart-shaped leaves having long drawn-out tips
From central and eastern Himalayas, sacred to Hindus and Buddhists, being the tree under which Buddha received enlightenment. A sprig carried to Sri Lanka in 288 BC by a disciple still survives in the temple of Anuradhapura (Corner, 1988). F. benghalensis: It differs from the banyan (Ficus Indica) by sending down no roots from its branches. Ficus religiosa , the sacred 'bo tree' of Burma, Ceylon and India. It is said the Buddha sat under its shade for six years while he developed his philosophy of the meaning of existence. To this day, worshipers place gifts of flowers at the base of its trunk , and its intricately-veined, skeletonized leaves are painted with lovely country scenes. The English name 'banyan' comes from the 'banians,' or Hindu merchants who set up markets in the shade of these enormous multi-trunked trees.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Bengali:
Common Names in Bengali, Bangla:
Common Names in Burmese:
Bawdi Nyaung, Lagat, Mai Nyawng, Nyaung Bawdi, ဗောဓိညောင်ပင်
Common Names in Catalan, Valencian:
Common Names in Chinese:
Pu Ti Shu, Si Wei Shu, 菩提树, 菩提樹
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Divehi, Dhivehi, Maldivian:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Bo Tree, Bo-Tree, Bodhi Tree, Botree, Buddha Tree, Peepal Tree, Peepul, Peepul Tree, Peepul Tree (Nepal), Peepultree, Pipal, Pipal Tree, Pipal Tree (India), Pippala (India), Po Tree (Thailand), Sacred Ficus, Sacred Fig, Sacred Fig Tree, Sacred FigFicus religiosa
Common Names in Esperanto:
Common Names in French:
Arbre Bo De, Figuier De L´inde, Figuier Des Banians, Figuier Des Pagodes, Figuier Indien, Figuier Sacré, Figuier Sacré De Bodh-Gaya
Common Names in German:
Bo-Baum, Bobaum, Bodhi-Baum, Heiliger Feigenbaum, Pappel Feige, Pappelfeige, Pepul-Baum, Pepulbaum Der Inder
Common Names in Gujarati:
Jari, Pipal, Pipers, Piplo
Common Names in Hindi:
Pipal, Pipali, Pipli, Pipul, पीपल, िपपल
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Indonesian:
Bodhi (pohon), Pohon bodhi
Common Names in Italian:
Albero della Bodhi, Fico Del Diavolo
Common Names in Japanese:
Indo Bodaiju, インドボダイジュ, ゴータマ・ブッダの菩提樹
Common Names in Kannada:
Arali, Arati, Aswatha
Common Names in Khmer:
Common Names in Korean:
Common Names in Laotian:
Common Names in Malayalam:
Arayal (Kerala), Arei Al, Ashwatham, അരയാൽ
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Nepalese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Oriya:
Common Names in Persian (Farsi):
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Árvore de Bodhi, Figueira-Dos-Pagodes, Figueira-Religiosa
Common Names in Russian:
Дерево Бодхи, Фикус священный
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Ashvatha, Ashvathha, Asvattha, Aswattha, Piippala, Pippala Vruksham, Shuchidruma, Vrikshraj, Yajnika
Common Names in Sanskrit (Saṁskṛta):
Common Names in Serbian:
Gumi-Lak Smokva, Indijska Smokva, Боди дрво
Common Names in Sinhala, Sinhalese:
Common Names in Sinhalese:
Araca Maram, Bo, Bodhi
Common Names in Spanish:
Arbol Sagrado De La India, Higuera De Agua, Higuera De Las Pagodas, Higuera Religiosa De La India, Higuera Sagrada De Los Budistas
Common Names in Spanish, Castilian:
Árbol de Bodhi
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Tamil:
Aracamaram, Arachu (Ceylon), Aracu, Arali, Arasamaram, Arasi Maram, Arasu, அரசு (மரம்)
Common Names in Telugu:
Bodhi, Raavi Chettu, Ragichettu, Ravi, రావి చెట్టు
Common Names in Thai:
Pho, Pho Si Maha Pho (Central Thailand), Sali (Northern Thailand), ต้นพระศรีมหาโพธิ์, โพ
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in Urdu:
Jori, Peepal, Usto
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Cây bồ đề, Đề (thực vật)
, or rarely herbs, frequently with milky
or watery latex, sometimes spiny
. Stipules present, frequently caducous
. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite; petiole
often present and well-defined; leaf blade
, sometimes with cystoliths
entire or palmately lobed
pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary
, frequently paired
, racemose, spicate
, capitate, or rarely cymose
, sometimes a fig or syconium with flowers completely enclosed within a hollow receptacle. Flowers unisexual
monoecious or dioecious), small to very small. Calyx lobes
(1 or) 2-4(-8), free
, imbricate or valvate
. Corolla absent. Male flowers: stamens as many as and opposite to calyx lobes (except in Artocarpus), straight or inflexed
in bud; anthers
1- or 2-loculed, crescent-shaped to top-shaped; pistillode
pistil) often present. Female flowers: calyx lobes usually 4; ovary superior, semi-inferior, or inferior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous
or campylotropous; style branches 1 or 2; stigmas usually filiform
. Fruit usually a drupe, rarely an achene, enveloped by an enlarged calyx and/or immersed
in a fleshy
receptacle, often joined into a syncarp. Seed solitary; endosperm present or absent.
Between 37 and 43 genera and 1100â€“1400 species: widespread in tropical and subtropical areas, less common in temperate areas; nine genera and 144 species (26 endemic, five introduced ) in China.
Economically, the most important species are those of Morus and Maclura associated with the production of silk . Some species in Broussonetia, Maclura, and Morus are important for paper making; some species in Artocarpus, Ficus, and Morus have edible fruit; and some species of Artocarpus and Broussonetia are used for furniture or timber.
, or woody vines
or deciduous, commonly epiphytic or scandent
as seedlings; sap
buds surrounded by pair of stipules. Leaves alternate, monomorphic
in F . pumila ) ; stipules caducous
, fused, enclosing naked buds. Leaf blade
in F . carica ), rarely dentate
pinnate or nearly palmate. Inflorescences small, borne on inner walls of fruitlike and fleshy
receptacle (syconium) . Flowers: staminate
on same plant. Staminate flowers
sessile or pedicellate
; calyx of 2-6 sepals; stamens 1-2, straight. Pistillate flowers sessile; ovary 1-locular; style unbranched, lateral
. Syconia globose
; achenes completely embedded
in enlarged, fleshy, common receptacle and accessible by apical opening (ostiole) closed
by small scales
Species ca. 750: tropics and subtropics, chiefly Asian.
Worldwide, Ficus is one of the largest genera of flowering plants . Members of the genus are usually treated as a separate tribe within Moraceae because of their unique inflorescence and wasp-dependent system of pollination.
The floral characters (especially of the American species, which are quite uniform ) are exceedingly difficult to use or of little value in distinguishing species. Therefore they are not used in the species descriptions. The form of the syconium, however, is often significant and taxonomically useful.
Species Ficus religiosa
Trees , evergreen , to 30 m. Bark of trunks and older branches brown, smooth . Branchlets glabrous . Leaves: stipules ovate , to 5 cm; petiole slender, 3.5-13 cm. Leaf blade broadly ovate to ovate-orbiculate, 7-25 × 4-16 cm, thinly leathery, base rounded to truncate , margins entire, occasionally wavy, apex abruptly long-caudate or long-acuminate, tip to 2.5-9 cm; surfaces occasionally glaucous, glabrous; basal veins 2(-3) pairs; lateral veins 6-9 pairs, the main veins finely reticulate . Syconia paired , sessile, dark purple, nearly globose , 1-1.5 × 1-1.5 cm, glabrous; subtending bracts ovate, 3-5 mm, silky-puberulous; ostiole closed by 3 bracts 2-3 mm wide, umbonate . [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. • Flower Color: chartreuse, yellow-green
Size: over 40' tall.
Disturbed thickets; 0-10 m ; introduced .
Culture: Space 30-40' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 10b, 11. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Moraceae () - (Dumort., 1829) Gaudich., in Trinius, 1835, nom. cons. - Mulberry Family
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Urostigma religiosum (Linnaeus) Gasparrini
Publishing author : Decne. ex Miq. Publication : Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi iii. 287
Members of the genus Ficus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 169 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
F. afghanistanica (Fig Tree) · F. albert-smithii (Figueira-Do-Alberto) · F. altissima (Council Tree) · F. altissima 'Aureo Variegata' (Council Tree) · F. amazonica (Figueira-Amaz) · F. americana (Jamaican Cherry Fig) · F. aripuanensis (Figueira-De-Aripuana) · F. arnottiana (Crow Fig (Ceylon)) · F. aspera (Mosaic Fig) · F. aurea (Florida Strangler Fig) · F. auriculata (Elephant Ear Fig Tree) · F. bengalensis (Banyan Tree) · F. benghalensis (Ban Yan) · F. benghalensis 'Bengal Tiger' (Ban Yan) · F. benjamina (Benjamin Fig) · F. benjamina 'Exotica' (Exotic Fig) · F. benjamina 'Golden Princess' (Weeping Chinese Banyan) · F. Benjamina 'Jamie K' (Chinese Banyan) · F. benjamina 'Natasha' (Miniature Ficus) · F. benjamina 'Starlight' (Chinese Banyan) · F. benjamina 'Variegata' (Chinese Banyan) · F. benjamina 'Wintergreen' (Chinese Banyan) · F. binnendijkii (Long-Leaf Fig) · F. binnendykii (Narrow Leaf Ficus) · F. blepharophylla (Mulemb) · F. broadwayi (Gameleira-Do-Cerrado) · F. calyptroceras (Gameleira-Branca) · F. capensis (Broom Cluster Fig) · F. carica (Brevo) · F. carica 'Alma' (Fig Tree) · F. carica 'Black Jack' (Black Jack Fig) · F. carica 'Black Mission' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Brown Turkey' (Brown Turkey Fig) · F. carica 'Calimyrna' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Celeste' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Desert King' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Italian Honey' (Fig) · F. carica 'Kadota' (Fig Tree) · F. carica 'Lsu Purple' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Magnolia' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Mission' (Mission Fig) · F. carica 'Osborn's Prolific' (Osborn's Prolific Fig) · F. carica 'Peter's Honey' (Peter's Honey Fig) · F. carica 'Petite Negra' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Verte' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Violette Du Bordeaux' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'Violette Normande' (Common Fig) · F. carica 'White Adriatic' (Common Fig) · F. castellviana (Figueira-De-Rond) · F. catappifolia (Falsa-Catapa) · F. citrifolia (Shortleaf Fig) · F. clusiifolia (Red-Fig Tree) · F. communis (Atlantic Figsnail) · F. congesta (Red Leaf Fig) · F. cordata (Namaqua Fig Tree) · F. cordata salicifolia (Wonderboom Fig (South Africa)) · F. coronata (Sandpaper Fig) · F. cotinifolia (Strangler Fig) · F. crassipes (Round Leaved Banana Fig) · F. craterostoma (Forest Fig) · F. cyclophylla (Gameleira-Grande) · F. dammaropsis (Dinner Plate Fig) · F. deltoidea (Delta Fig) · F. dendrocida (Mata-Pau) · F. destruens (Rusty Fig) · F. drupacea (Brown-Woolly Fig) · F. drupacea var. pubescens (Fig) · F. elastica (Indian Rubberplant) · F. elastica 'Variegata' (Rubber Tree) · F. elastica var. Burgundy (Rubber Tree) · F. elastica 'Decora' (Rubber Tree) · F. elastica 'Honduras' (Rubber Plant) · F. elastica 'Sylvia' (Rubber Tree) · F. erecta (Inu-Biwa) · F. fraseri (Sandpaper Fig) · F. geniculata (Dotted Fig) · F. glumosa (Mountain Rock Fig) · F. gnaphalocarpa (Quicuio) · F. godeffroyi (Fig) · F. greiffiana (Figueira-De-Greif) · F. hirsuta (Molemb) · F. hispida (Boombil) · F. infectoria (White-Fruited Wavy Leaf Fig Tree) · F. ingens (Red-Leaved Rock Fig) · F. insipida (Red Fig (Belize)) · F. krukovii (Figueira-De-Krukoff) · F. lacor (Java Fig) · F. luschnathiana (Agarrapalo) · F. lutea (Big Leaved Fig) · F. lyrata (Fiddle Fig) · F. maclellandii (Alii Bush) · F. maclellandii 'Alii' (Banana-Leaf Ficus) · F. macrocarpa (Moreton Bay Fig) · F. macrophylla (Moreton Bay Fig) · F. macrophylla columnaris (Lord Howe Island Banyan) · F. malacocarpa (Cumacabali) · F. matiziana (Figueria-De-Matiz) · F. mexiae (Figueira-De-Mexia) · F. microcarpa (Hill's Weeping Fig (Var Hillii)) · F. microcarpa var. crassifolia 'Green Mound' (Ficus)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2670512
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-506545
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13755068
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:853565-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 16962
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 506545
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 853563-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: FIRE3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 39622
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