- This tree has been in cultivation for a long time.
Common Names in English:
European Beech, Fern-Leaf Beech
or rarely shrubs
, monoecious, evergreen
or deciduous. Stipules usually early deciduous. Leaves alternate, sometimes false-whorled in Cyclobalanopsis. Inflorescences unisexual
or androgynous with female cupules at the base
of an otherwise male inflorescence. Male inflorescences a pendulous head
or pendulous catkin, sometimes branched; flowers in dense cymules
. Male flower: sepals 4-6(-9), scalelike, connate
; petals absent; filaments
or versatile, opening by longitudinal
slits; with or without a rudimentary
pistil. Female inflorescences of 1-7 or more flowers subtended individually or collectively by a cupule formed from numerous
fused bracts, arranged individually or in small groups along an axis or at base of an androgynous inflorescence or on a separate axis. Female flower: perianth 1-7 or more; pistil 1; ovary inferior, 3-6(-9) -loculed; style and carpels as many as locules; placentation axile
; ovules 2 per locule. Fruit a nut. Seed usually solitary by abortion
(but may be more than 1 in Castanea, Castanopsis, Fagus, and Formanodendron), without endosperm; embryo large.
Seven to 12 genera (depending on interpretation) and 900-1000 species: worldwide except for tropical and S Africa; seven genera and 294 species (163 endemic, at least three introduced ) in China.
Many species are important timber trees. Nuts of Fagus, Castanea, and of most Castanopsis species are edible, and oil is extracted from nuts of Fagus. Nuts of most species of this family contain copious amounts of water soluble tannin. Members of the Fagaceae are the main element of both broad-leaved evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests from 500-3200 m. 
, winter-deciduous. Terminal
buds present, long, tapered in maturity, all scales
imbricate. Leaves: stipules prominent
on new growth, soon deciduous. Leaf blade
thin, secondary veins unbranched, ± parallel, extending to margin
, each vein
ending in acute or obscure
. Inflorescences unisexual
in new growth leaves; staminate
inflorescence lax, loosely capitate cluster
of flowers; pistillate
inflorescence short, stiff, cupule 1, terminal. Staminate flowers
: sepals connate
; stamens 6-16; pistillode
typically absent. Pistillate flowers 2 per cupule; sepals distinct
; carpels and styles 3. Fruits: maturation
in 1st year following pollination; cupule 4-valved, valves
distinct, ±completely enclosing nuts until maturity, prickly, prickles stout, unbranched, short, not obscuring surface of cupule, internal valves absent; nuts 2 per cupule, sharply 3-angled, slightly winged
Species 8-10: temperate , subtropical , and montane tropical forests , North America (e United States), Mexico, Europe, Asia.
ID Features: Wavy entire leaf margins. Smooth, gray wrinkled bark. Dead leaves persist on tree through winter. Tree is very wide and branches generally touch ground. Alternate leaf arrangement. Three-winged fruit in a 4-lobed spiky involucre. Long pointed buds. 5 to 9 vein pairs.
Habit: Deciduous tree with a broad pyramidal shape . Trunk is short and branches generally touch ground .
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple leaves with wavy entire margins . Leaves are 2" to 4" long and approx. 2" wide. Glossy dark green leaf color, usually has a reddish tint. 5 to 9 vein pairs. • Fall foliage: Reddish bronze leaf color in fall . Very attractive. Leaves tend to persist through winter.
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate, about 1' per year. • Size: 50' to 60' tall and up to 50' wide.
Landscape Uses: Very attractive tree . Beautiful large specimen tree. Naturalized areas. Large open spaces. Lawn tree. Parks. Golf courses . Hedge , with heavy pruning. • Liabilities: Branches generally touch ground . Grass tends not to grow under tree . Does not like wet soils. Tends to sucker. Fruit can be a litter problem. Few minor pest problems including: powdery mildew , aphids, canker , and. beech bark disease. • Care: Tolerates heavy pruning.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,500 meters (0 to 8,202 feet).
Culture: Transplant during dormant season . Easier to transplant than American Beech, thanks to shallow roots . Full sun best. Shallow, wide root system. Prune in early summer or early fall .
Soil: Moist, well-drained, acidic soil. Does not like excessively wet soils. • Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun to part shade.
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Engler, 1892
- Family: Fagaceae () - Dumortier, 1829 - Beech Family
- Order: Fagales () - Engler, 1892
- Superorder: Faganae () - (Engler, 1892) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Castanea fagus Scop. • Fagus aenea Dum. Cours. • Fagus asplenifolia Dum. Cours. • Fagus cochleata (Dippel) Domin • Fagus comptoniifolia Desf. • Fagus crispa Dippel • Fagus cristata Dum. Cours. • Fagus cucullata Dippel • Fagus cuprea Hurter ex A. Dc. • Fagus echinata Gilib. • Fagus incisa Dippel • Fagus laciniata A. Dc. • Fagus pendula Dum. Cours. • Fagus purpurea Dum. Cours. • Fagus purpurea var. roseomarginata Cripps • Fagus quercoides (Pers.) Dippel • Fagus salicifolia A. Dc. • Fagus sylvatica f. aureovariegata C. K. Schneid. • Fagus sylvatica f. bornyensis Simon-Louis Ex Beissn. • Fagus sylvatica f. cochleata Dippel • Fagus sylvatica f. fastigiata Simon-Louis Ex K. Koch • Fagus sylvatica f. laciniata (Perr.) Domin • Fagus sylvatica f. pendula (Perr.) Domin • Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea (Aiton) C. K. Schneid. • Fagus sylvatica f. quercifolia C. K. Schneid. • Fagus sylvatica f. quercoides Pers. • Fagus sylvatica f. roseomarginata (Cripps) Domin • Fagus sylvatica f. tortuosa< /i> (Pépin) Hegi • Fagus sylvatica var. colorata A. Dc. • Fagus sylvatica var. cristata Loudon • Fagus sylvatica var. heterophylla Loudon • Fagus sylvatica var. luteovariegata Weston • Fagus sylvatica var. quercifolia (C. K. Schneid.) Geerinck • Fagus sylvatica var. tortuosa Dippel • Fagus sylvatica var. zlatia Spach Ex E. Goeze • Fagus sylvestris Gaertn. • Fagus tortuosa (Dippel) Domin • Fagus variegata A. Dc.
Members of the genus Fagus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 47 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
F. crenata (Japanese Beech) · F. grandifolia (American Beech) · F. orientalis (Oriental Beech) · F. sylvatica (European Beech) · F. sylvatica Atropurpurea Group (European Beech) · F. sylvatica f. latifolia (European Beech) · F. sylvatica f. purpurea (Copper Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Laciniata' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica L. var. roseo-marginata (Cripps) Rehder (Tricolor Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Tortuosa' (Parasol Beech) · F. sylvatica var. Beth Dwarf (Beth Dwarf European Beech) · F. sylvatica var. heterophylla 'Aspleniifolia' (Fern-Leaf Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Pendula' (European Weeping Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Ansorgei' (Ansorge European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Asplenifolia' (Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Atropunicea' (Purple European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Aurea Pendula' (Weeping European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Black Swan' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Cochleata' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Cockleshell' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Cristata' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Dawyck' (Dawyck European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Dawyck Gold' (Golden Columnar European Beach) · F. sylvatica 'Dawyck Purple' (Columnar European Beach) · F. sylvatica 'Fastigiata' (Upright European Beach) · F. sylvatica 'Interrupta Purpurea' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Luteovariegata' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Miltonensis' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Obelisk' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Prince George of Crete' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Purple Fountain' (Purple Fountain Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Purpurea Nana' (Purple European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Purpurea Pendula' (Purple-Leaf Weeping European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Quercifolia' (Oakleaf Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Quercina' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Red Obelisk' (Columnar European Beach) · F. sylvatica 'Riversii' (Copper European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Rohanii' (Copper Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Rohan Gold' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Rohan Obelisk' (Rohan Obelisk Upright Purple Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Rohan Trompenburg' (Fern-Leafed Copper Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Roseomarginata' (Tri-Colored European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Rotundifolia' (Round-Leaf Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Swat Margret' (European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Tortuosa Purpurea' (Parasol Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Tricolor' (Tricolor European Beech) · F. sylvatica 'Zlatia' (European Beech)
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- Mean = 243.700 meters (799.541 feet), Standard Deviation = 393.650 based on 18,348 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]