- Common buckwheat is an important pseudocereal crop in China, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Poland; it is grown in many other countries. It is planted frequently in wildlife food plots, as a catch or cover crop, and as a honey plant in North America. Hulls from the achenes are used for pillow filling, which manufacturers claim has health benefits over traditional foam, polyester , or down fillings. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Arabic:
Henta Soda (Egypt)
Common Names in Burmese:
Common Names in Chinese:
Qiao Mai, Tian Qiao Mai
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Boghvete, Boghvete
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Buckwheat, Buckwheat Fagopyrum Esculentum, Common Buckwheat, Fagopyrum, Japanese Buckwheat, Japanese Buckwheat (Usa), Sarrasin Corn, Silverhull Buckwheat, Silverhull Buckwheat (Usa)
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Blé De Barbarie, Blé De Sarrasin, Blé Noir, Bouquette, Mil Des Maures, Renouée Sarrasin, Sarrasin, Sarrasin Commun
Common Names in German:
Buchweizen, Echter Buchweizen, Heidenkorn
Common Names in Hebrew:
Fagopyron Tarbuti, Kosemet
Common Names in Hindi:
Bagonal, Kotu, Kotul, Kutu, Phaphar, Phaphra, कोटु, फाफरा
Common Names in Hungarian:
Hajdina, Pohánka, Pohánka Vagy Hajdina
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
Common Names in Italian:
Faggina, Fagopiro, Grano Saraceno, Sarasin
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Korean:
May Mil (Me Mil), Memil
Common Names in Nepalese:
Mithe Phaphar, Phaapar, Tilii Phaphar, Tonda
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Gryka Siewna, Gryka Zwyczajna, Poganka, Pryka Zwyczajna, Tatarka Gryka
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Grechikha Posevnaia, Grečicha Kul'turnaja, Grečicha Posevnaja, гречицха культурная, гречицха посевная
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Slovenian:
Ajda, Navadna Ajda
Common Names in Spanish:
Alforfón, Grano Sarraceno, Grano Turco, Trigo Negro, Trigo Sarraceno
Common Names in Swedish:
Bovete, Vanligt Bovete
Common Names in Welsh:
Gwenith Yr Hydd
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
; taprooted. Stems erect
. Leaves deciduous, cauline, alternate, petiolate
leaves) or sessile (distal leaves) ; ocrea persistent
or deciduous, chartaceous
cordate, triangular, hastate, or sagittate
entire to sinuate
. Pedicels present. Inflorescences axillary
, or terminal
and axillary, racemelike or paniclelike, pedunculate
. Flowers bisexual
or, rarely, bisexual and staminate
on same plant, 2-6 per ocreate
fascicle, heterostylous or homostylous, base stipelike; perianth nonaccrescent, white, pale
pink, or green, broadly campanulate
, glabrous; tepals 5, distinct
, outer smaller than inner; stamens 8; filaments
, glabrous; anthers
white, pink, or red, oval
; styles 3, reflexed
, distinct; stigmas capitate. Achenes strongly exserted, brown to dark brown or gray, sometimes mottled
black, unwinged or essentially so, bluntly to sharply 3-gonous, glabrous. Seeds: embryo folded. x = 8.
Species 16: introduced ; Eurasia , e Africa; introduced elsewhere, cultivated in temperate regions worldwide.
Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum are cultivated widely. In North America, they often escape , but populations generally are ephemeral .
Archaeological evidence for the cultivation of buckwheat dates to 4600 bp in China and 3500 bp in Japan (O. Ohnishi 1998). Molecular studies indicate that Fagopyrum comprises two major clades, with F. esculentum and F. tataricum in the large-fruited œcymosum group (O. Ohnishi and Y. Matsuoka 1996; Y. Yasui and O. Ohnishi 1998, 1998b; O. Ohsako and O. Ohnishi 2000).
Species Fagopyrum esculentum
, green or striped with pink or red,
branched, (7-) 15-90 cm. Leaves: ocrea brownish hyaline
, 2-8 mm, margins
1.5-6(-9) cm, usually puberulent adaxially; blade
palmately veined with 7-9 primary
basal veins, hastate-triangular,
sagittate-triangular, or cordate, 2.5-8 × 2-8 cm, base
or cordate to sagittate
, margins ciliolate
, apex acute to acuminate.
, paniclelike, 1-4 cm,
usually crowded at stem apices; peduncle 0.5-4 cm, puberulent in
. Pedicels ascending or recurved, 2.5-4 mm.
, heterostylous [homostylous]; perianths creamy white
pink; tepals elliptic
, (2.5-) 3-5 mm, margins
entire, apex obtuse
to acute; stamens ca.
1/ 2 as long as or slightly
than perianth; styles 1.5-2 mm or 0.5-1 mm; stigmas purplish.
Achenes uniformly light brown or streaked
with dark brown
or black, sharply 3-gonous, 4-6 × 4-6 mm, faces
, unwinged or essentially so, smooth or occasionally with
1/ 3. 2n = 16 (China). Flowering
Jun-Sep; fruiting Jun-Nov. [source]
Fagopyrum esculentum is a heterostylous, obligate out-crosser. Morphological, allozyme , and molecular data suggest that the cultivated plants are most closely related to wild ones in northwestern Yunnan, China. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 24-36" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,852 meters (0 to 12,638 feet).
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 9.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: Not Applicable (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- knotweed, renouées
- P. Miller, 1754, nom. cons.
- Buckwheat, sarrasin [Latin fagus, beech, and Greek pyrus, wheat, alluding to resemblance of the achene to a beech-nut]
- Specific epithet:
up to the publication of Icones
- Botanical name: - Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
- Form: l literature up to the publication of Icones
- Specific epithet: esculentum - Moench
- Genus: Fagopyrum () - P. Miller, 1754, nom. cons. - Buckwheat, sarrasin [Latin fagus, beech, and Greek pyrus, wheat, alluding to resemblance of the achene to a beech-nut]
- Tribe: Persicarieae ()
- Subfamily: Polygonoideae ()
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
F. vulgare T. Nees • Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L.) Karst. • Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilib. • Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilibert • Fagopyrum vulgare Hill • Polygonum fagopyrum L. • Polygonum fagopyrum Linnaeus
Publishing author : Moench Publication : Methodus (Moench) 290. 1794 [4 May 1794]
Members of the genus Fagopyrum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Mean = 179.380 meters (588.517 feet), Standard Deviation = 233.840 based on 2,675 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]