Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ye Qiao Mai
Common Names in English:
Common Names in Thai:
Khao Sam Liam, Phak Bung Som (Chiang Mai)
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
; taprooted. Stems erect
. Leaves deciduous, cauline, alternate, petiolate
leaves) or sessile (distal leaves) ; ocrea persistent
or deciduous, chartaceous
cordate, triangular, hastate, or sagittate
entire to sinuate
. Pedicels present. Inflorescences axillary
, or terminal
and axillary, racemelike or paniclelike, pedunculate
. Flowers bisexual
or, rarely, bisexual and staminate
on same plant, 2-6 per ocreate
fascicle, heterostylous or homostylous, base stipelike; perianth nonaccrescent, white, pale
pink, or green, broadly campanulate
, glabrous; tepals 5, distinct
, outer smaller than inner; stamens 8; filaments
, glabrous; anthers
white, pink, or red, oval
; styles 3, reflexed
, distinct; stigmas capitate. Achenes strongly exserted, brown to dark brown or gray, sometimes mottled
black, unwinged or essentially so, bluntly to sharply 3-gonous, glabrous. Seeds: embryo folded. x = 8.
Species 16: introduced ; Eurasia , e Africa; introduced elsewhere, cultivated in temperate regions worldwide.
Fagopyrum esculentum and F. tataricum are cultivated widely. In North America, they often escape , but populations generally are ephemeral .
Archaeological evidence for the cultivation of buckwheat dates to 4600 bp in China and 3500 bp in Japan (O. Ohnishi 1998). Molecular studies indicate that Fagopyrum comprises two major clades, with F. esculentum and F. tataricum in the large-fruited œcymosum group (O. Ohnishi and Y. Matsuoka 1996; Y. Yasui and O. Ohnishi 1998, 1998b; O. Ohsako and O. Ohnishi 2000).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- knotweed, renouées
- Subfamily: Polygonoideae ()
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Fagopyrum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 18.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 1 1899 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 208.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 203.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 327, p. 530.
- Edwards's botanical register. 32 1846 London: James Ridgway, 1829-1847. url , .
- Food-grains of India. By A.H. Church. .. [With supplement (1901)] London, Chapman and Hall, Limited, 1886. url p. 114.
- Food-grains of India. London, Pub. for the Committee of Council on education, by Chapman and Hall, limited, 1886. url .
- Forest culture and eucalyptus trees, San FranciscoCubery1876 url p. 302, p. 527, p. 548.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 891.
- Handbook of plants. New York: P. Henderson, 1881. url p. 84.
- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 691.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 7 1912-1913 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 146, p. 185, p. 360.
- Plants of the Punjab: a descriptive key to the flora of the Punjab, North-west Frontier Province, and Kashmir / by C.J. Bamber. Lahore: Supt. Govt. Printing, Punjab, 1916. url p. 231.
- Plants of the Punjab; a descriptive key to the flora of the Punjab, North-west Frontier Province and Kashmir. LahorePrinted by The Superintendent Government Printing1916 url p. 231.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 217, p. 617, p. 619, p. 635, p. 558, p. 560.
- Select extra-tropical plants, readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation, with indications of their native countries and some of their uses. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller. .. Sydney, T. Richards, government printer, 1881. url p. 134, p. 384, p. 386.
- Select plants (exclusive of timber trees) readily eligible for Victorian industrial culture with indications of their native countries and some of their uses; an enumeration / offered by Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: s.n., 1872 url p. 49.
- Sturtevant's notes on edible plants / Edited by U.P. Hedrick. Albany: J.B. Lyon, 1919. url p. 266.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 272.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 217.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 28 1891 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 118, p. 337, p. 437, p. 459, p. 573.
- The London and Edinburgh philosophical magazine and journal of science. London: Richard and John E. Taylor, 1832-1840. url p. 225.
- The differentiation and specificity of starches in relation to genera, species, etc.; stereochemistry applied to protoplasmic processes and products, and as a strictly scientific basis for the classification of plants and animals Washington, D.C.Carnegie institution of Washington1913 url p. 203, p. 6, p. 6.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 52.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url p. 221.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2744.
- Wallich, N. Plantae Asiaticae rariores, or, Descriptions and figures of a select number of unpublished East Indian plants /by N. Wallich. 3 1832 London: Treuttel and Wu?rtz, 1830-32. url p. 63.
- Li Anjen, Kao Tsoching, Mao Zumei & Liu Yulan. 1998. Polygonaceae. In: Li Anjen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(1): 1209.
- Ohnishi, O. 1998. Search for the wild ancestor of buckwheat III. The wild ancestor of cultivated common buckwheat, and of Tartary buckwheat. Econ. Bot. 52: 123-133.
- Ohnishi, O. and Y. Matsuoka. 1996. Search for the wild ancestor of buckwheat II. Taxonomy of Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae) species based on morphology, isozymes and cpDNA variability. Genes Genet. Systems 71: 383-390.
- Ohsako, T. and O. Ohnishi. 2000. Intra- and interspecific phylogeny of wild Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae) species based on nucleotide sequences of noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 573-582.
- Yasui, Y. and O. Ohnishi. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships among Fagopyrum species revealed by the nucleotide sequences of the ITS region of the nuclear rRNA gene. Genes Genet. Systems 73: 201-210.
- Yasui, Y. and O. Ohnishi. 1998b. Interspecific relationships in Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae) revealed by the nucleotide sequences of the rbcL and accD genes and their intergenic region. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1134-1142.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3476246
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15786066
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:694519-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 448824
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 694519-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1097959
- Anjen Li, Bojian Bao, Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Suk-pyo Hong, John McNeill, Sergei L. Mosyakin, Hideaki Ohba & Chong-wook Park "Polygonaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Harold R. Hinds , Craig C. Freeman "Fagopyrum". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]