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Eusideroxylon zwageri



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Threat status

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in English:

Billian, Borneo Ironwood

Common Names in French:

Bois De Fer

Common Names in Indonesian:


Common Names in Malay:

Pokok Belian


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Family Lauraceae

Shrubs to tall trees , evergreen or rarely deciduous ( Cassytha a parasitic vine with leaves reduced to scales ), usually aromatic . Leaves alternate, rarely whorled or opposite, simple , without stipules, petiolate . Leaf blade : unlobed (unlobed or lobed in Sassafras ), margins entire, occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites ) in axils of main lateral veins (in Cinnamomum ) . Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts, panicles (rarely heads ), racemes , compound cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha ), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts. Flowers bisexual or unisexual , bisexual only, or staminate and pistillate on different plants , or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others; flowers usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish; hypanthium well developed, resembling calyx tube , tepals and stamens perigynous; tepals 6(-9), in 2(-3) whorls of 3, sepaloid , equal or rarely unequal, if unequal then usually outer 3 smaller than inner 3 (occasionally absent in Litsea ) ; stamens (3-) 9(-12), in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent; stamens of 3d whorl with 2 glands near base ; anthers 2- or 4-locular, locules opening by valves ; pistil 1, 1-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; placentation basal; ovule 1; stigma subsessile , discoid or capitate. Fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent floral tube . Seed 1; endosperm absent.

Genera ca. 50, species 2000-3000 (9 genera, 13 species in the flora ) : pantropical , a few species also in subtropical and temperate regions

Cassytha is sometimes placed in its own family , Cassythaceae; it is here retained in Lauraceae.[1]


Biome: Terrestrial [2].

Ecology: Generally a species of lowland primary forest .[2].


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Publishing author : Teijsm. & Binn. Publication : in Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. xxv. (1863) 292

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Eusideroxylon

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

E. lauriflora (Billian) · E. zwageri (Billian)

More Info

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Further Reading

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  1. Henk van der Werff "Lauraceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at [back]
  2. Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam) 1998. Eusideroxylon zwageri. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-20