- Bonesets were once used in folk medicine for setting broken bones, thus the common name .
Common Names in English:
Hyssop-Leaf Thoroughwort, Hyssop-Leaved Boneset, Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, 30-200 cm. Stems erect
, usually not branched proximal
to arrays of heads
(from caudices or rhizomes) . Leaves mostly cauline; usually opposite (rarely whorled
, distal sometimes alternate) ; petiolate
or sessile; blades
usually 3-nerved from or distal to bases
, or pinnately nerved, mostly deltate or ovate
to lanceolate or linear
(and intermediate shapes
, sometimes elliptic
, or suborbiculate, sometimes pinnatifid
, 1-2-pinnately, ternately, or palmately lobed
entire or toothed
, or setulose
, usually gland-dotted. Heads discoid
, in corymbiform
to dense, paniculiform
arrays. Involucres obconic to ellipsoid
, 1-3(-5+) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 7-15+ in 2-3(-4+) series, (usually green) 2-3-nerved, or not notably nerved, or pinnately nerved, elliptic, lanceolate, oblong, or obovate
, usually unequal, sometimes ± equal (margins scarious
, apices rounded
to acute or acuminate sometimes mucronate
, faces usually puberulent or villous
, usually gland-dotted, rarely glabrous) . Receptacles flat or convex
, epaleate. Florets (3-) 5(-15+) ; corollas usually white, rarely pinkish, throats
5, triangular; styles: bases sometimes enlarged, usually puberulent (glabrous in E. capillifolium), branches mostly filiform
. Cypselae (brownish to black) prismatic
, 5-ribbed, usually glabrous, usually gland-dotted; pappi persistent, of 20-50 (whitish) barbellulate
in 1 series. x
Species 41+ (24 species, including 2 hyb: e North America, Europe, e Asia.
Species identification within Eupatorium is sometimes complicated; polyploidy and apomixis have contributed to the complications. Some species include both sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid plants or populations. V. I. Sullivan (1972) made important contributions to understanding Eupatorium in North America by showing that some fairly distinct , sexual diploid species may include apomictic polyploid plants or populations that do not differ greatly from the diploids. Other apomictic polyploids appear to be intermediate morphologically between pairs of diploid or diploid/polyploid species and were proposed by Sullivan to have originated from interspecific hybridization. Distinction and level of recognition of hybrid apomictic taxa have a large arbitrary component , in part because some apomicts appear to be ephemeral and others may be relatively stable and in part because differences in the relative genomic contributions of the progenitors through dosage effects or backcrossing may affect whether an apomict is morphologically distinctive or part of a continuous series of variation .
Species Eupatorium hyssopifolium
, 50-100+ cm. Stems (from short caudices
or rhizomes) single, sparsely branched distally, pubescent
Leaves usually opposite or whorled
(distal sometimes alternate,
or horizontal) ; simple
, sessile; blades
sometimes weak), lance-linear
, lance-oblong, or linear
20-60 × 2-15 mm (lengths
mostly 6-40 times widths
), bases cuneate,
entire, laciniate-serrate, or serrate, apices acute, faces
(at least abaxial
). Heads in corymbiform
Phyllaries 8-10 in 2-3 series, elliptic
, 1.5-5 ×
1-1.5 mm, apices obtuse to acute (not mucronate
), abaxial faces pubescent
throughout (more densely distally). Florets 5; corollas 3-3.5
Cypselae 2-3 mm; pappi of 20-30 bristles
Eupatorium hyssopifolium includes both diploid and polyploid cytotypes and presents a complex situation taxonomically. The diploids are placed here in var. hyssopifolium, which also includes polyploids and is characterized by relatively narrow leaves. Variety laciniatum has broader leaves and molecular data suggest that it arose through hybridization between var. hyssopifolium and E. serotinum; the name E. torreyanum has been applied to plants of similar morphology, but these are hybrid derivatives of E. serotinum and E. mohrii. It has also been suggested that var. hyssopifolium has hybridized with E. album var. album to form E. saltuense, and with diploids of E. linearifolium to form polyploid populations included here under E. linearifolium. Eupatorium hyssopifolium is characterized by a tendency for the leaves to be whorled, in 3s and 4s, and for axillary buds to produce leaves without expansion of shoots ; the combination of whorled leaves and suppressed axillary shoots gives the nodes a somewhat tufted or verticillate appearance . [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September, October, November. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Landscape Uses: Back border . Cut flowers. • Care: Deer resistant. Tolerant of coastal conditions. Shear after blooming. Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Remove old flowers to prolong flowering. Cut back to the ground at the end of the season .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Soil: Must have well-drained soil. Tolerates clay soil . Prefers humusy soil.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3 in. of soil is dry.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: New Zealand Plant Name Database, IPNI, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:E365EAD7-D75E-4A72-84C1-E7D0EA64C236
Last scrutiny: 17-Aug-09
Members of the genus Eupatorium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 93 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. album (White Thoroughwort) · E. album var. album (White Thoroughwort) · E. album var. album L. (White Thoroughwort) · E. album var. glandulosum (White Thoroughwort) · E. album var. subvenosum (White Thoroughwort) · E. altissimum (Tall Boneset) · E. anomalum (Florida Thoroughwort) · E. aromaticum 'Joicus Variegated' (Boneset) · E. cannabinum (Ague Weed) · E. cannabinum 'Flore Pleno' (Hemp Agrimony) · E. cannabinum 'Plenum' (Hemp Agrimony) · E. capillifolium (Dog Fennel) · E. chapmanii (Chapman's Thorough-Wort) · E. chinense (Boneset) · E. coelestinum 'Cori' (Cori Hardy Ageratum) · E. coelestinum 'Wayside' (Blue Mistflower) · E. compositifolium (Dogfennel Eupatorium) · E. dubium (Coastal Plain Joe-Pye Weed) · E. dubium 'Little Joe' (Coastal Plain Joe Pye Weed) · E. fistulosum (Hollow Joe-Pye Weed) · E. fistulosum 'Atropurpureum' (Joe Pye Weed) · E. fortunei (Pei Lan) · E. glaucescens (Small-Flower Thorough-Wort) · E. glechonophyllum (Eupatorium) · E. godfreyanum (Godfrey's Boneset) · E. grandiflorum (Tasselflower Brickellbush) · E. hyssopifolium (Hyssop-Leaf Thoroughwort) · E. hyssopifolium var. angustissimum (Hyssop-Leaf Thoroughwort) · E. hyssopifolium var. calcaratum (Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort) · E. hyssopifolium var. hyssopifolium (Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort) · E. hyssopifolium var. laciniatum (Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort) · E. hyssopifolium var. laciniatum Gray (Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort) · E. laciniatum (Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort) · E. lancifolium (Lance-Leaf Thorough-Wort) · E. leptophyllum (False Fennel) · E. leucolepis (Justiceweed) · E. leucolepis (DC.) Torr. and Gray var. leucolepis (DC.) Torr. and Gray (Justiceweed) · E. leucolepis var. leucolepis (Justiceweed) · E. leucolepis var. novae-angliae (Justiceweed) · E. maculatum (Spotted Joe Pye Weed) · E. maculatum Atropurpureum Group (Joe-Pye Weed Atropurpureum Group) · E. maculatum bruneri var. bruneri (Spotted Joe-Pyeweed) · E. maculatum var. bruneri (Spotted Joe-Pye-Weed) · E. maculatum var. bruneri (Gray) Breitung (Spotted Joe-Pye-Weed) · E. maculatum var. foliosum (Spotted Joepyeweed) · E. maculatum var. foliosum (Fern.) Wieg. (Spotted Joepyeweed) · E. maculatum var. maculatum (Spotted Joepyeweed) · E. maculatum 'Bartered Bride' (Boneset) · E. maculatum 'Carin' (Spotted Joe Pye Weed) · E. maculatum'Little Joe' (Little Joe Dwarf Spotted Joe Pie Weed) · E. maculatum 'Purple Bush' (Spotted Joe Pye Weed) · E. mikanioides (Semaphore Thorough-Wort) · E. mohrii (Mohr's Thorough-Wort) · E. perfoliatum (Agueweed) · E. perfoliatum f. trifolium (Thoroughwort) · E. perfoliatum L. var. colpophilum Fern. & Grisc. (Common Boneset) · E. perfoliatum var. colpophilum (Common Boneset) · E. perfoliatum var. perfoliatum (Common Boneset) · E. pilosum (Rough Boneset) · E. pinnatifidum (Eupatorium) · E. purpureum (Sweet Joe Pye Weed) · E. purpureum maculatum (Green-Stem Joe-Pye-Weed) · E. purpureum maculatum 'Gateway' (Gateway Joe Pye Weed) · E. purpureum var. holzingeri (Holzinger's Eupatorium) · E. purpureum var. holzingeri (Rydb.) E.Lamont (Holzinger's Eupatorium) · E. purpureum var. purpureum (Sweet-Scented Joe-Pye Weed) · E. purpureum var. ternifolium (Green-Stem Joe-Pye-Weed) · E. purpureum 'Joe White' (Joe Pye Weed) · E. rebaudianum (Sweet Honey Leaf) · E. resinosum (Pine Barren Thoroughwort) · E. rotundifolium (Round-Leaf Thorough-Wort) · E. rotundifolium var. cordigerum (Roundleaf Thoroughwort) · E. rotundifolium var. ovatum (Roundleaf Thoroughwort) · E. rotundifolium var. rotundifolium (Roundleaf Thoroughwort) · E. rotundifolium var. scabridum (Roundleaf Thoroughwort) · E. rugosum album (Richweed) · E. rugosum 'Chocolate' (Chocolate White Snakeroot) · E. semiserratum (Small-Flower Thorough-Wort) · E. serotinum (Late Eupatorium) · E. sessilifolium (Upland Boneset) · E. sessilifolium L. var. brittonianum Porter (Upland Boneset) · E. sessilifolium L. var. sessilifolium L. (Upland Boneset) · E. sessilifolium L. var. vaseyi (Porter) Fern. & Grisc. (An Upland Boneset) · E. sessilifolium var. brittonianum (Upland Boneset) · E. sessilifolium var. sessilifolium (Upland Boneset) · E. sessilifolium var. vaseyi (Upland Boneset) · E. sordidum (Dirty Thoroughwort) · E. steelei (Steele's Eupatorium) · E. triplinerve (Yapana) · E. truncatum (Eupatorium) · E. variabile 'Variegatum' (Joe Pye Weed) · E. x pinnatifidum (Eupatorium) · E. x truncatum (Eupatorium)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3875110
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-8177
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13748668
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:206119-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 454513
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35979
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST3P0U0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: EUHYL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38204
- Kunsiri Chaw Siripun, Edward E. Schilling "Eupatorium". in Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 459, 461, 462, 470, 471. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 154.690 meters (507.513 feet), Standard Deviation = 169.690 based on 395 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]