Common Names in English:
Eucalyptus, White Iron Bark, White Ironbark, Yellow Gum
, usually with essential oils-containing cavities in foliage
, and flowers. Stipules absent or small and caducous
. Leaves opposite, occasionally alternate, occasionally ternate
or pseudo-whorled; leaf blade
with secondary veins pinnate or basal, often with intramarginal veins
, margin usually entire. Inflorescences axillary
but variously arranged, 1- to many-flowered. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes polygamous, actinomorphic
. Hypanthium usually adnate
to ovary and prolonged above it. Calyx lobes
(3 or) 4 or 5 or more, distinct
into a calyptra. Petals 4 or 5, sometimes absent, distinct or connate into a calyptra, sometimes coherent and pseudocalyptrate. Stamens usually numerous
, in 1 to several whorls; filaments
distinct or connate into 5 bundles opposite petals; anthers
, dehiscing longitudinally or rarely terminally; connectives
usually terminating in 1 or more apical glands
. Ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or very rarely superior, carpels 2 to more, locules 1 to many, pseudoseptum sometimes present, placentation usually axile
but occasionally parietal
; ovules 1 to several per locule. Style single; stigma single. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupaceous
berry, or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seeds without endosperm or endosperm sparse and thin; testa cartilaginous
or thinly membranous, sometimes absent; embryo straight or curved
About 130 genera and 4500-5000 species: Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, Pacific islands, tropical and South America; 10 genera (five introduced ) and 121 species (50 endemic, 32 introduced treated here) in China.
Many Myrtaceae are cultivated garden ornamentals , street trees, or plantation trees. Some members of tribe Syzygieae are grown as fruit crops. In addition to the cultivated members of the family treated here, some others grown in China include Acca sellowiana (O. Berg ) Burrett (Feijoa sellowiana (O. Berg) O. Berg), Myrtus communis Linnaeus, and Syncarpia glomulifera (Smith) Niedenzu.
, stringy, or tessellated. Leaves usually polymorphic
with different juvenile and mature
forms and sometimes with intermediate forms. Juvenile leaves opposite, 3 to several pairs, shortly petiolate
or sessile; leaf blade
often glaucous or with glandular
; juvenile foliage
sometimes persisting throughout life of plant. Mature leaves alternate, petiolate; leaf blade usually leathery, secondary veins numerous
, with intramarginal veins
. Inflorescences axillary
or clustered into terminal
or axillary panicles, consisting of umbelliform condensed dichasia. Flowers bisexual
. Hypanthium campanulate
, obconic, or semiglobose, stipitate
or not, apex usually truncate
. Sepals rarely distinct
. Petals connate
, either adnate
to sepals into a 1-layered calyptra or not adnate and then with connate sepals forming a 2-layered calyptra; calyptra deciduous at anthesis
. Stamens numerous, usually distinct, in several whorls with outer whorl usually sterile
2-celled, parallel or oblique
, cordate, or bifurcate
, dehiscing longitudinally or occasionally poricidally. Ovary adnate to hypanthium, 2-7-loculed; ovules numerous. Style persistent
. Whole or most of capsule included
in expanded hypanthium; disk often well developed; valves
exserted from hypanthium, equaling hypanthium rim, or included in hypanthium. Seeds numerous, many sterile and undeveloped
, developed seeds ovate or angular; testa rigid
, sometimes developed into wings
About 700 species: mainly in Australia, with a minor representation in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines; about 110 species cultivated in China with only 25 major ones treated here.
The genus is treated here in the broad sense, i.e. , the segregate Corymbia is not recognized.
Habit: Evergreen . • Growth Form: Single Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Winter • Flower Color: Red • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 6800 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Dark Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring , Summer, Fall • Growth Rate: Rapid • Mature Height (feet): 50.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 30 • Size: over 40' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 546 meters (0 to 1,791 feet).
Coppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Winter • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Low • Salinity Tolerance: Medium • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 8.5 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 20 • Maximum Precipitation: 100 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 22 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 180
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Myrtales () - Reichenbach, 1828
- Superorder: Myrtanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2004
Members of the genus Eucalyptus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 159 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
E. acaciiformis (Wattle-Leaved Peppermint) · E. aggregata (Rodway Black Gum) · E. alba (White Eucalyptus) · E. albens (White Box) · E. albida (White-Leaved Mallee) · E. albopurpurea (Coffin Bay Mallee) · E. alpina (Grampian Stringybark) · E. andrewsii (New England Ash) · E. angulosa (Kwaral) · E. angustissima (Narrow-Leaved Mallee) · E. apiculata (Narrow-Leaved Mallee Ash) · E. approximans (Barren Mountain Mallee) · E. archeri (Apple Cider Gum) · E. aspratilis (Flat-Topped Yate) · E. badjensis (Badja Gum Tree) · E. baeuerlenii (Baeuerlens Gum) · E. barberi (Barbers Gum Tree) · E. baxteri (Brown Stringybark) · E. blakelyi (Blakelys Red Gum) · E. botryoides (Bangalay) · E. bridgesiana (Apple Box) · E. brookeriana (Brookers Gum) · E. burdettiana (Burdetts Gum) · E. caesia (Gungurru) · E. caesia magna (Silver Princess) · E. caesia 'Magna' (Silver Princess Gum) · E. caliginosa (Broad-Leaved Stringybark) · E. calophylla (Redgum) · E. calycogona (Gooseberry Mallee) · E. camaldulensis (Red Gum) · E. camaldulensis var. obtusa (Red River Gum) · E. campaspe (Silver Gimlet) · E. camphora (Broad-Leaved Sallee) · E. cannonii (Capertree Stringybark) · E. cernua (Red-Flowered Moort) · E. cinerea (Argyle Apple) · E. cladocalyx (Sugar Gum) · E. cladocalyx var. nana (Dwarf Sugar Gum) · E. cloeziana (Gympie Messmate) · E. coccifera (Tasmanian Snow Gum) · E. conferruminata (Busy Yate) · E. consideniana (Prickly Stringybark) · E. cordata (Heart-Leaved Silver Gum) · E. cornuta (Yate) · E. coronata (Crowned Mallee) · E. crebra (Narrow-Leaved Red Ironbark) · E. crenulata (Buxton Gum) · E. crucis (Silver Mallee) · E. curtisii (Plunkett Mallee) · E. cyanophylla (Blue-Leaved Mallee) · E. cylindriflora (White Mallee) · E. cypellocarpa (Monkey Gum) · E. dealbata (Hill Gum) · E. deanei (Deanes Gum) · E. debeuzevillei (Jonama Snow Gum) · E. deglupta (Indonesian Gum) · E. diversicolor (Karri) · E. doratoxylon (Spearwood Mallee) · E. effusa (Rough-Barked Gimlet) · E. elata (River Peppermint) · E. erythrocorys (Illyarrie) · E. forrestiana (Fuchsia Gum) · E. fruticetorum (Eucalyptus) · E. gamophylla (Blue-Leaved Mallee) · E. gillii (Arkaroola Mallee) · E. glaucescens (Tingiringi Gum) · E. globoidea (White Stringybark) · E. globulus (Blue Gum) · E. globulus bicostata (Eurabbie) · E. globulus globulus (Bluegum Eucalyptus) · E. globulus globulus var. globulus (Tasmanian Blue Gum) · E. globulus maidenii (Maiden´s Gum) · E. gomphocephala (Tuart) · E. goniocalyx (Mountain Graygum) · E. grandis (Flooded Gum) · E. gregsoniana (Mallee Snow Gum) · E. grossa (Coarse-Leaved Mallee) · E. gunnii (Cider Gum) · E. gunnii 'Blue Ice' (Cider Gum) · E. gunnii 'Silver Drop' (Cider Gum) · E. haemastoma (Scribbly Gum) · E. halophila (Eucalyptus) · E. intertexta (Red Box) · E. jacksonii (Red Tingle) · E. kitsoniana (Bog Gum) · E. kruseana (Bookleaf Mallee) · E. lansdowneana (Box) · E. largiflorens (Black Box) · E. lehmannii (Bushy Yate) · E. leucoxylon (Eucalyptus) · E. leucoxylon leucoxylon (White Iron Bark) · E. leucoxylon var. Rosea (Yellow Gum) · E. loxophleba loxophleba (Eucalyptus) · E. macrocarpa (Blue Bush) · E. marginata (Jarrah) · E. microcorys (Australian Tallow Wood) · E. microtheca (Coolibah) · E. moorei nana (Little Sally) · E. morrisbyi (Morrisby's Gum) · E. mortoniana (Morton Eucalyptus)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 23, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3879216
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: IOP-455695
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13690823
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:593070-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 15941
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 565613
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: EULE13
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38815
- Jie Chen & Lyn A. Craven "Myrtaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 321. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- Mean = 122.480 meters (401.837 feet), Standard Deviation = 179.040 based on 609 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]