- Eucalyptus trees are quick growers and many species reach a great height . Eucalyptus amygdalin (Labille ) is the tallest known tree, specimens attaining as much as 480 feet, exceeding in height even the Californian Big Tree (Sequoia gigantea). Many species yield valuable timber, others oils , kino, etc.
- The medicinal Eucalyptus Oil is probably the most powerful antiseptic of its class , especially when it is old, as ozone is formed in it on exposure to the air . It has decided disinfectant action, destroying the lower forms of life. Internally, it has the typical actions of a volatile oil in a marked degree .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Blue Gum, Bluegum Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus Tree, Silver Mountain Gum, Silver-Leaved Mountain Gum, Silverleaf Mountain Gum, Southern Blue Gum, Tasmanian Blue Gum, Tasmanian Bluegum
Common Names in French:
Eucalyptus Globuleux, Gommier Bleu
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Spanish:
, usually with essential oils-containing cavities in foliage
, and flowers. Stipules absent or small and caducous
. Leaves opposite, occasionally alternate, occasionally ternate
or pseudo-whorled; leaf blade
with secondary veins pinnate or basal, often with intramarginal veins
, margin usually entire. Inflorescences axillary
but variously arranged, 1- to many-flowered. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes polygamous, actinomorphic
. Hypanthium usually adnate
to ovary and prolonged above it. Calyx lobes
(3 or) 4 or 5 or more, distinct
into a calyptra. Petals 4 or 5, sometimes absent, distinct or connate into a calyptra, sometimes coherent and pseudocalyptrate. Stamens usually numerous
, in 1 to several whorls; filaments
distinct or connate into 5 bundles opposite petals; anthers
, dehiscing longitudinally or rarely terminally; connectives
usually terminating in 1 or more apical glands
. Ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or very rarely superior, carpels 2 to more, locules 1 to many, pseudoseptum sometimes present, placentation usually axile
but occasionally parietal
; ovules 1 to several per locule. Style single; stigma single. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupaceous
berry, or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seeds without endosperm or endosperm sparse and thin; testa cartilaginous
or thinly membranous, sometimes absent; embryo straight or curved
About 130 genera and 4500-5000 species: Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, Pacific islands, tropical and South America; 10 genera (five introduced ) and 121 species (50 endemic, 32 introduced treated here) in China.
Many Myrtaceae are cultivated garden ornamentals , street trees, or plantation trees. Some members of tribe Syzygieae are grown as fruit crops. In addition to the cultivated members of the family treated here, some others grown in China include Acca sellowiana (O. Berg ) Burrett (Feijoa sellowiana (O. Berg) O. Berg), Myrtus communis Linnaeus, and Syncarpia glomulifera (Smith) Niedenzu.
, stringy, or tessellated. Leaves usually polymorphic
with different juvenile and mature
forms and sometimes with intermediate forms. Juvenile leaves opposite, 3 to several pairs, shortly petiolate
or sessile; leaf blade
often glaucous or with glandular
; juvenile foliage
sometimes persisting throughout life of plant. Mature leaves alternate, petiolate; leaf blade usually leathery, secondary veins numerous
, with intramarginal veins
. Inflorescences axillary
or clustered into terminal
or axillary panicles, consisting of umbelliform condensed dichasia. Flowers bisexual
. Hypanthium campanulate
, obconic, or semiglobose, stipitate
or not, apex usually truncate
. Sepals rarely distinct
. Petals connate
, either adnate
to sepals into a 1-layered calyptra or not adnate and then with connate sepals forming a 2-layered calyptra; calyptra deciduous at anthesis
. Stamens numerous, usually distinct, in several whorls with outer whorl usually sterile
2-celled, parallel or oblique
, cordate, or bifurcate
, dehiscing longitudinally or occasionally poricidally. Ovary adnate to hypanthium, 2-7-loculed; ovules numerous. Style persistent
. Whole or most of capsule included
in expanded hypanthium; disk often well developed; valves
exserted from hypanthium, equaling hypanthium rim, or included in hypanthium. Seeds numerous, many sterile and undeveloped
, developed seeds ovate or angular; testa rigid
, sometimes developed into wings
About 700 species: mainly in Australia, with a minor representation in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines; about 110 species cultivated in China with only 25 major ones treated here.
The genus is treated here in the broad sense, i.e. , the segregate Corymbia is not recognized.
Species Eucalyptus globulus
The leaves are leathery in texture
, hang obliquely or vertically,
and are studded with glands
containing a fragrant volatile oil
flowers in bud are covered with a cup-like membrane
(whence the name
of the genus, derived from the Greek eucalyptos well-covered), which
is thrown off as a lid when the flower expands. The fruit is surrounded
by a woody, cupshaped receptacle and contains numerous
The bark dies annually and species can be roughly grouped based on its appearance . In smooth-barked trees most of the bark is shed, leaving a smooth surface that is often colourfully mottled . With rough-barked trees the dead bark persists on the tree and dries out. Many trees, however, have smooth bark at the top but rough bark on the trunk or its bottom . The types of rough bark is often used to broadly label a group of eucalypts. They are:
- Stringybark - consists of long-fibres and can be pulled off in long pieces . It is usually thick with a spongy texture.
- Ironbark - is hard, rough and deeply furrowed . It is soaked with dried kino (a sap exuded by the tree) which gives a dark red or even black colour . · Tessellated - bark is broken up into many distinct flakes . They are corkish and can flake off.
- Box - has short fibres. Some also show tessellation.
- Ribbon - this has the bark coming off in long thin pieces but still loosely attached in some places. They can be long ribbons, firmer strips or twisted curls.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 15-20' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
Culture: Space 8-10' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Reichenbach, 1828
- Series: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/58018" ta ()
- Suborder: Myrtineae () -
- Order: Myrtales () - Reichenbach, 1828
- Superorder: Myrtanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Eucalyptus cordata Labill. • Eucalyptus diversifolia Bonpl. • Eucalyptus gigantea Dehnh. • Eucalyptus glauca Dc. • Eucalyptus globulus var. compacta Maiden • Eucalyptus perfoliata Desf. • Eucalyptus pulverulenta Link
Members of the genus Eucalyptus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 159 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
E. acaciiformis (Wattle-Leaved Peppermint) · E. aggregata (Rodway Black Gum) · E. alba (White Eucalyptus) · E. albens (White Box) · E. albida (White-Leaved Mallee) · E. albopurpurea (Coffin Bay Mallee) · E. alpina (Grampian Stringybark) · E. andrewsii (New England Ash) · E. angulosa (Kwaral) · E. angustissima (Narrow-Leaved Mallee) · E. apiculata (Narrow-Leaved Mallee Ash) · E. approximans (Barren Mountain Mallee) · E. archeri (Apple Cider Gum) · E. aspratilis (Flat-Topped Yate) · E. badjensis (Badja Gum Tree) · E. baeuerlenii (Baeuerlens Gum) · E. barberi (Barbers Gum Tree) · E. baxteri (Brown Stringybark) · E. blakelyi (Blakelys Red Gum) · E. botryoides (Bangalay) · E. bridgesiana (Apple Box) · E. brookeriana (Brookers Gum) · E. burdettiana (Burdetts Gum) · E. caesia (Gungurru) · E. caesia magna (Silver Princess) · E. caesia 'Magna' (Silver Princess Gum) · E. caliginosa (Broad-Leaved Stringybark) · E. calophylla (Redgum) · E. calycogona (Gooseberry Mallee) · E. camaldulensis (Red Gum) · E. camaldulensis var. obtusa (Red River Gum) · E. campaspe (Silver Gimlet) · E. camphora (Broad-Leaved Sallee) · E. cannonii (Capertree Stringybark) · E. cernua (Red-Flowered Moort) · E. cinerea (Argyle Apple) · E. cladocalyx (Sugar Gum) · E. cladocalyx var. nana (Dwarf Sugar Gum) · E. cloeziana (Gympie Messmate) · E. coccifera (Tasmanian Snow Gum) · E. conferruminata (Busy Yate) · E. consideniana (Prickly Stringybark) · E. cordata (Heart-Leaved Silver Gum) · E. cornuta (Yate) · E. coronata (Crowned Mallee) · E. crebra (Narrow-Leaved Red Ironbark) · E. crenulata (Buxton Gum) · E. crucis (Silver Mallee) · E. curtisii (Plunkett Mallee) · E. cyanophylla (Blue-Leaved Mallee) · E. cylindriflora (White Mallee) · E. cypellocarpa (Monkey Gum) · E. dealbata (Hill Gum) · E. deanei (Deanes Gum) · E. debeuzevillei (Jonama Snow Gum) · E. deglupta (Indonesian Gum) · E. diversicolor (Karri) · E. doratoxylon (Spearwood Mallee) · E. effusa (Rough-Barked Gimlet) · E. elata (River Peppermint) · E. erythrocorys (Illyarrie) · E. forrestiana (Fuchsia Gum) · E. fruticetorum (Eucalyptus) · E. gamophylla (Blue-Leaved Mallee) · E. gillii (Arkaroola Mallee) · E. glaucescens (Tingiringi Gum) · E. globoidea (White Stringybark) · E. globulus (Blue Gum) · E. globulus bicostata (Eurabbie) · E. globulus globulus (Bluegum Eucalyptus) · E. globulus globulus var. globulus (Tasmanian Blue Gum) · E. globulus maidenii (Maiden´s Gum) · E. gomphocephala (Tuart) · E. goniocalyx (Mountain Graygum) · E. grandis (Flooded Gum) · E. gregsoniana (Mallee Snow Gum) · E. grossa (Coarse-Leaved Mallee) · E. gunnii (Cider Gum) · E. gunnii 'Blue Ice' (Cider Gum) · E. gunnii 'Silver Drop' (Cider Gum) · E. haemastoma (Scribbly Gum) · E. halophila (Eucalyptus) · E. intertexta (Red Box) · E. jacksonii (Red Tingle) · E. kitsoniana (Bog Gum) · E. kruseana (Bookleaf Mallee) · E. lansdowneana (Box) · E. largiflorens (Black Box) · E. lehmannii (Bushy Yate) · E. leucoxylon (Eucalyptus) · E. leucoxylon leucoxylon (White Iron Bark) · E. leucoxylon var. Rosea (Yellow Gum) · E. loxophleba loxophleba (Eucalyptus) · E. macrocarpa (Blue Bush) · E. marginata (Jarrah) · E. microcorys (Australian Tallow Wood) · E. microtheca (Coolibah) · E. moorei nana (Little Sally) · E. morrisbyi (Morrisby's Gum) · E. mortoniana (Morton Eucalyptus)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2651147
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: IOP-455705
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:592965-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 15919
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 27189
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 592965-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDMRT02020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: EUGLM
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38808
- Jie Chen & Lyn A. Craven "Myrtaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 321. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Eucalyptus". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 321. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 265.610 meters (871.424 feet), Standard Deviation = 484.620 based on 61,167 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]