Common Names in English:
Common Woolly Sunflower, Common Woolly-Sunflower, Oregon Sunshine, Woody Eriophyllum, Woolly Daisy, Woolly Eriophyllum, Woolly Sunflower, Wooly Daisy
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, or shrubs
, 1-200 cm. Stems erect
, usually branched (proximally, distally, or ± throughout). Leaves mostly cauline; mostly alternate (proximal
sometimes opposite) ; petiolate
or sessile; blades
usually 1-2(-3) -pinnately lobed
, serrate, or entire, faces
usually densely to sparsely woolly
or both, adaxial
). Heads radiate
, borne singly or in loose
to tight, corymbiform
or compound-corymbiform arrays. Involucres campanulate
, 3-12+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 4-13(-15) in 1+ series (± erect in fruit, distinct
or basally connate
, lanceolate to oblanceolate
, herbaceous or indurate
, slightly to deeply concave
, usually carinate
, margins sometimes scarious
, abaxial faces densely to sparsely woolly). Receptacles flat or convex
to conic, smooth
, usually epaleate (with 1-6 hyaline
paleae in E. ambiguum, obscurely setose
in E. mohavense). Ray florets 0, or 4-13(-15), pistillate
; corollas yellow or white (sometimes with reddish veins in E. lanosum). Disc florets (3-) 10-300, bisexual
, fertile; corollas yellow, tubes
shorter than or about equaling funnelform
5, deltate. Cypselae linear-clavate to prismatic
, flattened or 3-angled in rays, 4(-5) -angled in discs, hairy
or glabrous; pappi 0, or persistent, of 6-12+ (distinct) erose to laciniate
(in 1-2 similar or contrasting series), or ± coroniform
. x = 8.
Species 13: w North America, nw Mexico.
Eriophyllum encompasses taxa that occur in seashore, chaparral , grassland, desert, forest , and alpine communities. Their disparateness encouraged taxonomic multiplication. Between 1890 and 1937, about 157 designations under the genus existed (L. Constance 1937). Constance reduced that taxonomic thicket to six annual and five perennial species; the perennial species E. lanatum consisted of ten varieties. Base diploid chromosome numbers for Eriophyllum (in the sense of Constance) species are x = 4, 5, and 7 for the annuals, and x = 8, 15, and 19 for the perennials (S. Carlquist 1956; J. S. Mooring 1997, 2001, 2002). Possibly, x = 15 and x = 19 represent paleopolyploidy. Only E. mohavense remains uncounted. B . G. Baldwin (1999) linked Mooring's (1997) report of n = 19 in E. nevinii to chromosomal, morphologic, and rDNA evidence, and erected the genus Constancea on that species. Eriophyllum (in the sense of Constance) seems most closely related to the annuals Pseudobahia (x = 3, 4, 8) and Syntrichopappus (x = 6, 7). Eriophyllum (in the sense of Baldwin), Pseudobahia, and Syntrichopappus constitute a clade, and nomenclatural changes are necessary for a monophyletic classification (Baldwin and B. L. Wessa 2000; Baldwin et al. 2002). Mooring (1997) hypothesized a descending dysploidy phylogeny in Eriophyllum (in the sense of Constance) from E. nevinii. Baldwin et al. (2002, p. 174) stated that E. nevinii "is an evolutionary outlier (although probably not ancestral) to" Eriophyllum in the sense of Constance.Natural intertaxon hybrids have been reported for the perennial species (L. Constance 1937; J. S. Mooring 1994) but not for the annuals. Experimental hybridizations have produced sterile hybrids between the annual E. congdonii and the perennial E. lanatum. Experimental crosses among seven of the annual species produced fertile hybrids between two morphologically similar species; the other combinations either failed or produced sterile hybrids (Mooring 2002).D. P. Tibor (2001) cited nine taxa of Eriophyllum as rare or endangered : the perennials E. confertiflorum var. tanacetiflorum, E. jepsonii, E. latilobum, E. (Constancea) nevinii, and E. lanatum vars. hallii and obovatum, and the annuals E. congdonii, E. mohavense, and E. nubigenum.
Species Eriophyllum lanatum
, 10-100 cm (sometimes flowering first
year). Stems erect
usually alternate) : blades
mostly lanceolate to oblanceolate
1-8 cm, often 1-2(-3) -pinnately lobed
serrate, or entire, revolute
, often woolly
(more densely abaxially, sometimes glabrate
adaxially; distal leaves
reduced in size and lobing). Heads borne singly or (2-5+)
arrays. Peduncles mostly 3-30 cm. Involucres
, 6-15 mm diam. Phyllaries 5-13(-15),
(lanceolate to ovate
Ray florets 0 or 5-13(-15) ; laminae
golden yellow to yellow,
6-20 (× 2-7) mm.
Disc florets 20-300; corollas 2.5-5
or glandular-hairy, glabrous
hallii). Cypselae 2-5 mm; pappi usually of 6-12
ovate or cuneate to lanceolate or lance-linear
(often unequal), erose
0.3-2 mm, sometimes coroniform
, rarely 0. [source]
Eriophyllum lanatum is a polyploid complex of intergrading regional facies treated here as varieties. Artificial hybridization studies show that strong barriers to interbreeding exist among the varieties at the diploid level (J. S. Mooring 2001). In nature, morphologically intermediate polyploid populations often occur in regions where the ranges of the varieties approach one another. Edaphic factors and light intensity also make identification more difficult by strongly influencing leaf morphology and sizes of structures. For example, cultivated individuals of var. achilleoides may have laciniately toothed rather than pinnatifid leaves. Rarely, plants of different varieties maintain their identity while growing side by side. In some instances, one is diploid and the other tetraploid ; in others both are diploid. Varieties arachnoideum, croceum, grandiflorum, and obovatum apparently form natural hybrids with E. confertiflorum var. confertiflorum; past hybridizations may have resulted in the origin of E. latilobum and E. jepsonii (L. Constance 1937; P. A. Munz 1959; Mooring 1994) and E. confertiflorum var. tanacetiflorum (Mooring 1994). [source]
Our treatment of Eriophyllum lanatum closely follows that of L. Constance (1937), which was done without benefit of cytogeographic studies. The key is to modal populations of the varieties, usually based on living plants. [source]
Some varieties have been introduced into cultivation as ornamentals . [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,770 meters (0 to 9,088 feet).
Duration: Annual , Perennial
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Actinella lanata Pursh
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: CONABIO, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, LCR Editor. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:1C730207-83B9-4A38-9533-4619FC9BD884
Last scrutiny: 13-Aug-09
Members of the genus Eriophyllum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 32 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. ambiguum (Beautiful Woolly Sunflower) · E. ambiguum var. ambiguum (Beautiful Woolly Sunflower) · E. ambiguum var. paleaceum (Beautiful Woolly Sunflower) · E. confertiflorum (Golden-Yarrow) · E. confertiflorum (DC.) Gray var. confertiflorum (DC.) Gray (Golden-Yarrow) · E. confertiflorum var. confertiflorum (Golden-Yarrow) · E. confertiflorum var. tanacetiflorum (Golden-Yarrow) · E. congdonii (Congdon's Eriophyllum) · E. jepsonii (Jepson Woolly-Sunflower) · E. lanatum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum (Pursh) Forb. var. integrifolium (Hook.) Smiley (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum (Pursh) Forb. var. leucophyllum (DC.) W. R. Carter (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. achillaeoides (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. aphanactis (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. arachnoideum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. croceum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. cuneatum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. grandiflorum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. hallii (Hall's Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. integrifolium (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. lanatum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. lanceolatum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. leucophyllum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum var. obovatum (Common Woolly Sunflower) · E. lanatum 'Pointe' (Oregon Sunshine) · E. latilobum (San Mateo Woolly Sunflower) · E. mohavense (Barstow Wooly-Sunflower) · E. multicaule (Many-Stem Woolly-Sunflower) · E. nevinii (Nevin's Woolly Sunflower) · E. nubigenum (Yosemite Woolly Sunflower) · E. pringlei (Pringle's Eriophyllum) · E. stoechadifolium (Seaside Woolly Sunflower)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 25, 2007:
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- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
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- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
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- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658530
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-18506
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13749080
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:204863-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 454786
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37334
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST3N050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERLAT ERLA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38349
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- Mean = 989.620 meters (3,246.785 feet), Standard Deviation = 618.360 based on 1,338 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]