Common Names in English:
Arrowleaf Buckwheat, Arrowleaf Wild Buckwheat, Northern Buckwheat, Sulfer Flower Buckwheat
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
, or herbs, sometimes nearly arborescent
, biennial, or annual
, polycarpic or, rarely, monocarpic
(subg. Pterogonum), synoecious
(sometimes polygamodioecious in subg. Micrantha and Oligogonum, rarely dioecious in subg. Oligogonum) ; taproot
slender to stout, solid, or rarely chambered
(subg. Pterogonum). Stems prostrate
, infrequently absent, glabrous
, sometimes glandular
stems absent or woody, tightly compact
and at or just below surface, or spreading to erect and above surface; aerial
flowering stems arising at nodes of caudex branches, at distal nodes of aerial branches, or directly from the root
, prostrate or decumbent to erect, slender to stout, solid or slightly to distinctly hollow and fistulose, rarely disarticulating
into ringlike segments (subg. Clastomyelon). Leaves usually persistent
, occasionally persistent through growing season
, sometimes marcescent
or quickly deciduous, basal and sometimes sheathing
up stems, cauline, or basal and cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled
, 1 per node or fasciculate; petiole
usually present, sometimes obscure
to orbiculate, entire apically. Inflorescences terminal
or terminal and axillary
and dichotomously or trichotomously branched, or racemose, simple
or compound-umbellate, subcapitate
, or capitate, occasionally distally uniparous
due to suppression of secondary branches; branches mostly dichotomous except for initial
node, not brittle or disarticulating into segments, round
, rarely grooved
, variously lanate
, pilose-pubescent, or puberulent
, occasionally glandular, rarely scabrellous; bracts 2-13 or more at proximal
nodes, usually 3 distally, connate
proximally, leaflike, semileaflike, or scalelike, not awn-tipped, glabrous or variously pubescent or glandular. Peduncles absent or erect to deflexed
. Involucres 1-8 or more per cluster
, smooth or ribbed
or narrowly turbinate
to broadly campanulate
; teeth 5-10, sometimes lobelike, not awned
. Flowers bisexual
or, infrequently, unisexual
, (2-) 6-100 per involucre at any single time during full anthesis, sometimes with stipelike base
; perianth usually white to red or variously yellow, broadly campanulate when open, cylindric to urceolate
, glabrous or pubescent or glandular abaxially; tepals 6, connate proximally to 2 their length
, usually entire apically, rarely emarginate
; stamens 9; filaments
basally, glabrous or pubescent; anthers
usually red to cream or yellow, oblong
. Achenes included
to exserted, various shades of brown, black, or occasionally yellow, rarely winged
or ridged (subg. Pterogonum), lenticular
or 3-gonous, glabrous or pubescent. Seeds: embryo curved
or straight. x = 10.
Species ca. 250: North America (including n Mexico).
Eriogonum is the basal group of subfam. Eriogonoideae. Like all of its related genera, Eriogonum is a highly derived tetraploid taxon that has undergone rapid evolution in arid regions of western North America. The circumscription of the genera in the subfamily is now being studied molecularly and cladistically. The approach taken here is to divide the group into numerous genera, acknowledging that the resulting Eriogonum remains paraphyletic and that all genera of Eriogoneae are imbedded within Eriogonum as presently circumscribed. Resolution may well come with the reduction of the subfamily to two genera, Eriogonum and Pterostegia (including Harfordia Greene, a genus of Baja California, Mexico), or, at the other extreme, reducing Eriogonum to just two species. What the future will hold is difficult to ascertain at this time.
As presently circumscribed, Eriogonum is one of the larger genera in the flora area, being exceeded in numbers of species only by Carex (ca. 480), Astragalus (ca. 350), and Penstemon (ca. 250). As a native North American genus, Eriogonum (ca. 250) is second only to Penstemon. Ecologically, species of Eriogonum occur from the seashore to the highest mountains in the United States. They are among the last plants seen atop the Sierra Nevada and on the €œoutskirts€ of Badwater in Death Valley. About one-third of the species are uncommon to rare in their distribution. The United States Department of the Interior currently lists some as endangered or threatened species. Some species tend to be weedy, and some of the annual species are aggressively so.
Species of Eriogonum have long been regarded as among the most difficult in North America to distinguish. Regional treatments should be consulted before attempting to use this review, especially for plants found outside California or the Intermountain West. Geographic distribution is a useful character, and such information is given fully in keys and discussion here to aid with identification. In addition to regional keys noted below, keys exist for Texas (J. L. Reveal 1970b), the Pacific Northwest (J. L. Reveal 1973), and the Great Plains (R. Kaul 1986). In each instance the nomenclature should be compared with that presented here. To aid in the identification of species belonging to the largest subgenus , Eucycla, regional keys are given here, thereby avoiding a long and complex key to the more than 100 species.
In collecting specimens of Eriogonum, try to obtain leaves (especially for annuals), fruits (especially those belonging to subg. Pterogonum), and ample flowers (rarely difficult to accomplish). Field observations on flower color, pubescence , and overall size and habit are useful. Some species (especially those of subg. Oligogonum) are dioecious, with the mature staminate and pistillate plants occasionally markedly different in aspect . It is not uncommon for several annual species to grow intermixed in disturbed places, so care must be taken to prevent mixed collections . Finally, as in all cases, collectors should try to sample the range of variation rather than concentrate on extremes.
Eriogonum has a long history of aboriginal use. Today, several members of the genus are in cultivation, especially in the rock or alpine garden (G. Nicholls 2002).
Members of Eriogonum are hosts for a number of butterfly species, including such endangered ones as the El Segundo dotted-blue (Euphilotes battoides allyni), Smith's dotted blue (Euphilotes enoptes smithi), and Lange's metalmark (Apodemia mormo Iangei). Species of the genus Euphilotes spend their entire life on particular species complexes. Other butterfly species found in association with Eriogonum and relatives (see P. A. Opler and A. B . Wright 1999) include the western green hairstreak (Callophrys affinis), desert green or Comstock's hairstreak (C. comstocki), bramble hairstreak (C. dumetorum), Lembert's hairstreak (C. lemberti), Sheridan's green hairstreak (C. sheridani), green hairstreak (C. viridis), varied blue (Chalceria heteronea), Rocky Mountain dotted-blue (Euphilotes ancilla), Bauer's dotted-blue (E. baueri), Bernardino dotted-blue (E. bernardino), Ellis's dotted-blue (E. ellisi), Pacific dotted-blue (E. enoptes), intermediate dotted-blue (E. intermedia), Mojave dotted-blue (E. mojave), pallid dotted-blue (E. pallescens), Rita dotted-blue (E. rita), Spalding's dotted-blue (E. spaldingi), Gorgon copper (Gaeides gorgon), gayas or Edward's blue (Hemiargus ceranus gyas), blue copper (Lycaena heteronea), small blue (Philotiella speciosa), Boisduval's blue (Plebeius icarioides), acmon blue (P. acmon), lupine blue (P. lupini), veined blue (P. neurona), California hairstreak (Satyrium californica), nut-brown hairstreak (S. saepium), Avalon scrub-hairstreak (Strymon avalona), and gray hairstreak (S. melinus). Flowering plants of Eriogonum are infrequently visited by the sooty hairstreak (Satyrium fulginosum), the flowers being a source of nectar for adults . According to Opler, several additional species and subspecies of these butterflies remain to be described.
Species Eriogonum compositum
, infrequently polygamodioecious, 2-4(-7) ×
2-5 dm; floccose
. Stems: caudex
flowering stems erect, slender or stout, hollow, often slightly fistulose,
arising at nodes of caudex branches and at distal nodes of short,
nonflowering aerial branches, 1-5 dm, floccose or glabrous. Leaves
basal, occasionally in rosettes; petiole
4-10(-15) cm, tomentose
lanceolate or ovate
to deltoid, (2-) 7-25 × (0.7-) 1-8
cm, densely white-lanate to tomentose abaxially, less so to glabrate
and greenish adaxially, margins
or compound-umbellate, 3-20 × 3-20 cm; branches floccose
or glabrous; bracts 3-several, leaflike or semileaflike at proximal
to linear-lanceolate, 1-3(-6) cm, scalelike distally,
usually 1-5 × 0.5-3 mm.
Involucres 1 per node, turbinate-campanulate
, 6-10 × 4-10 mm, sparsely to densely lanate
weakly glandular-puberulent, or glabrous; teeth (5-) 7-10, usually
not lobelike, erect to weakly reflexed
, 2-4 mm. Flowers 5-6
mm, including 0.7-1.5 mm stipelike base
; perianth pale
yellow, occasionally ochroleucous
, glabrous; tepals monomorphic
to oblong-ovate; stamens slightly exserted, 4-8 mm; filaments
proximally. Achenes light brown, 5-6 mm, glabrous except
for sparsely pubescent
Eriogonum compositum is one of the more attractive members of the genus and does well in cultivation. The three varieties are only weakly differentiated, and both var. lancifolium and var. leianthum merge with var. compositum. The butterfly Euphilotes enoptes is a pollinator of this species. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Flower Color: pale yellow
Size: 18-24" tall.
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- knotweed, renouées
- Subfamily: Eriogonoideae ()
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Douglas ex
: Edwards's Bot.
Reg. 21: ad t. 1774 1835
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Eriogonum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 521 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
E. abertianum (Abert Buckwheat) · E. abertianum var. abertianum (Abert's Buckwheat) · E. abertianum var. cyclosepalum (Abert's Buckwheat) · E. acaule (Pointed Eriogonum) · E. alatum (Wind Wildbuckwheat) · E. alatum var. alatum (Winged Wild Buckwheat) · E. alatum var. glabriusculum (Winged Buckwheat) · E. alatum var. mogollense (Winged Buckwheat) · E. aliquantum (Cimarron Buckwheat) · E. allenii (Shalebarren Buckwheat) · E. alpinum (Trinity Buckwheat) · E. ammophilum (Ibex Buckwheat) · E. ampullaceum (Mono Buckwheat) · E. androsaceum (Rockjasmine Buckwheat) · E. anemophilum (West Humboldt Buckwheat) · E. angulosum (Angle-Stemmed Wild-Buckwheat) · E. annuum (Annual Buckwheat) · E. apiculatum (San Jacinto Buckwheat) · E. apricum (Ione Buckwheat) · E. apricum var. apricum (Ione Buckwheat) · E. apricum var. prostratum (Irish Hill Buckwheat) · E. arborescens (Santa Cruz Island Buckwheat) · E. arcuatum var. arcuatum (Baker's Wild Buckwheat) · E. aretioides (Red Canyon Buckwheat) · E. argillosum (Clay Buckwheat) · E. argophyllum (Ruby Valley Buckwheat) · E. arizonicum (Arizona Buckwheat) · E. artificis (Kaye's Wild Buckwheat) · E. atrorubens (Buckwheat) · E. atrorubens atrorubens (Buckwheat) · E. baileyi (Bailey Buckwheat) · E. baileyi var. baileyi (Bailey's Buckwheat) · E. baileyi var. praebens (Bailey's Buckwheat) · E. batemanii (Bateman Buckwheat) · E. beatleyae (Beatley Buckwheat) · E. bicolor (Pretty Buckwheat) · E. bifurcatum (Forked Buckwheat) · E. blissianum (Bliss' Buckwheat) · E. brachyanthum (Shortflower Buckwheat) · E. brachypodum (Parry's Buckwheat) · E. brandegeei (Brandegee Wild Buckwheat) · E. breedlovei (Pilute Buckwheat) · E. breedlovei var. breedlovei (Piute Buckwheat) · E. breedlovei var. shevockii (Needle's Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule (Short-Stemmed Wild-Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. bannockense (Bannock Wild Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. brevicaule (Shortstem Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. cottamii (Cottam's Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. laxifolium (Goldenball Eriogonum) · E. brevicaule var. micranthum (Shortstem Buckwheat) · E. butterworthianum (Butterworth's Buckwheat) · E. caespitosum (Matted Buckwheat) · E. caespitosum var. sublineare (Matted Wild Buckwheat) · E. capillare (San Carlos Buckwheat) · E. capistratum (Hidden Buckwheat) · E. capistratum var. capistratum (Hidden Buckwheat) · E. capistratum var. muhlickii (Muhlick's Buckwheat) · E. capistratum var. welshii (Welsh's Buckwheat) · E. cernuum (Nodding Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. cernum (Nodding Wild Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. cernuum (Nodding Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. purpurascens (Nodding Wild Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. viminale (Nodding Buckwheat) · E. cespitosum (Matted Buckwheat) · E. chrysops (Bitterroot Buckwheat) · E. cinereum (Coastal Buckwheat) · E. cithariforme (Cithara Buckwheat) · E. cithariforme var. agninum (Cithara Buckwheat) · E. cithariforme var. cithariforme (Cithara Buckwheat) · E. clavatum (Hoover's Desert Trumpet) · E. clavellatum (Clay-Loving Wild-Buckwheat) · E. codium (Basalt Desert Buckwheat) · E. collinum (Hill Buckwheat) · E. coloradense (Colorado Buckwheat) · E. compositum (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. compositum (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. lancifolium (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. leianthum (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. pilicaulis (Arrowleaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. concinnum (Darin Buckwheat) · E. congdonii (Congdon Buckwheat) · E. contiguum (Ash Meadows Buckwheat) · E. contortum (Grand Buckwheat) · E. correllii (Correll's Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum (Corymbed Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. aureum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. corymbosum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. glutinosum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. heilii (Crisp-Leaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. nilesii (Crisp-Leaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. orbiculatum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. revealianum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. thompsonae (Crisp-Leaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. velutinum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. covilleanum (Coville's Buckwheat) · E. crocatum (Conejo Buckwheat) · E. cronquistii (Bull Mountain Buckwheat) · E. crosbyae (Crosby's Buckwheat) · E. cusickii (Cusick's Buckwheat) · E. darrovii (Carrot Buckwheat)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 02, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647198
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21097
- GRIN Nomen Number: 452868
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21097
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 694078-1
- MoBot NameID: 26000486
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDPGN08180
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERUMT2 ERC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38053
- Anjen Li, Bojian Bao, Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Suk-pyo Hong, John McNeill, Sergei L. Mosyakin, Hideaki Ohba & Chong-wook Park "Polygonaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James L. Reveal "Eriogonum". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]