Common Names in English:
Arrowleaf Buckwheat, Arrowleaf Wild Buckwheat, Northern Buckwheat, Sulfer Flower Buckwheat
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
, or herbs, sometimes nearly arborescent
, biennial, or annual
, polycarpic or, rarely, monocarpic
(subg. Pterogonum), synoecious
(sometimes polygamodioecious in subg. Micrantha and Oligogonum, rarely dioecious in subg. Oligogonum) ; taproot
slender to stout, solid, or rarely chambered
(subg. Pterogonum). Stems prostrate
, infrequently absent, glabrous
, sometimes glandular
stems absent or woody, tightly compact
and at or just below surface, or spreading to erect and above surface; aerial
flowering stems arising at nodes of caudex branches, at distal nodes of aerial branches, or directly from the root
, prostrate or decumbent to erect, slender to stout, solid or slightly to distinctly hollow and fistulose, rarely disarticulating
into ringlike segments (subg. Clastomyelon). Leaves usually persistent
, occasionally persistent through growing season
, sometimes marcescent
or quickly deciduous, basal and sometimes sheathing
up stems, cauline, or basal and cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled
, 1 per node or fasciculate; petiole
usually present, sometimes obscure
to orbiculate, entire apically. Inflorescences terminal
or terminal and axillary
and dichotomously or trichotomously branched, or racemose, simple
or compound-umbellate, subcapitate
, or capitate, occasionally distally uniparous
due to suppression of secondary branches; branches mostly dichotomous except for initial
node, not brittle or disarticulating into segments, round
, rarely grooved
, variously lanate
, pilose-pubescent, or puberulent
, occasionally glandular, rarely scabrellous; bracts 2-13 or more at proximal
nodes, usually 3 distally, connate
proximally, leaflike, semileaflike, or scalelike, not awn-tipped, glabrous or variously pubescent or glandular. Peduncles absent or erect to deflexed
. Involucres 1-8 or more per cluster
, smooth or ribbed
or narrowly turbinate
to broadly campanulate
; teeth 5-10, sometimes lobelike, not awned
. Flowers bisexual
or, infrequently, unisexual
, (2-) 6-100 per involucre at any single time during full anthesis, sometimes with stipelike base
; perianth usually white to red or variously yellow, broadly campanulate when open, cylindric to urceolate
, glabrous or pubescent or glandular abaxially; tepals 6, connate proximally to 2 their length
, usually entire apically, rarely emarginate
; stamens 9; filaments
basally, glabrous or pubescent; anthers
usually red to cream or yellow, oblong
. Achenes included
to exserted, various shades of brown, black, or occasionally yellow, rarely winged
or ridged (subg. Pterogonum), lenticular
or 3-gonous, glabrous or pubescent. Seeds: embryo curved
or straight. x = 10.
Species ca. 250: North America (including n Mexico).
Eriogonum is the basal group of subfam. Eriogonoideae. Like all of its related genera, Eriogonum is a highly derived tetraploid taxon that has undergone rapid evolution in arid regions of western North America. The circumscription of the genera in the subfamily is now being studied molecularly and cladistically. The approach taken here is to divide the group into numerous genera, acknowledging that the resulting Eriogonum remains paraphyletic and that all genera of Eriogoneae are imbedded within Eriogonum as presently circumscribed. Resolution may well come with the reduction of the subfamily to two genera, Eriogonum and Pterostegia (including Harfordia Greene, a genus of Baja California, Mexico), or, at the other extreme, reducing Eriogonum to just two species. What the future will hold is difficult to ascertain at this time.
As presently circumscribed, Eriogonum is one of the larger genera in the flora area, being exceeded in numbers of species only by Carex (ca. 480), Astragalus (ca. 350), and Penstemon (ca. 250). As a native North American genus, Eriogonum (ca. 250) is second only to Penstemon. Ecologically, species of Eriogonum occur from the seashore to the highest mountains in the United States. They are among the last plants seen atop the Sierra Nevada and on the €œoutskirts€ of Badwater in Death Valley. About one-third of the species are uncommon to rare in their distribution. The United States Department of the Interior currently lists some as endangered or threatened species. Some species tend to be weedy, and some of the annual species are aggressively so.
Species of Eriogonum have long been regarded as among the most difficult in North America to distinguish. Regional treatments should be consulted before attempting to use this review, especially for plants found outside California or the Intermountain West. Geographic distribution is a useful character, and such information is given fully in keys and discussion here to aid with identification. In addition to regional keys noted below, keys exist for Texas (J. L. Reveal 1970b), the Pacific Northwest (J. L. Reveal 1973), and the Great Plains (R. Kaul 1986). In each instance the nomenclature should be compared with that presented here. To aid in the identification of species belonging to the largest subgenus , Eucycla, regional keys are given here, thereby avoiding a long and complex key to the more than 100 species.
In collecting specimens of Eriogonum, try to obtain leaves (especially for annuals), fruits (especially those belonging to subg. Pterogonum), and ample flowers (rarely difficult to accomplish). Field observations on flower color, pubescence , and overall size and habit are useful. Some species (especially those of subg. Oligogonum) are dioecious, with the mature staminate and pistillate plants occasionally markedly different in aspect . It is not uncommon for several annual species to grow intermixed in disturbed places, so care must be taken to prevent mixed collections . Finally, as in all cases, collectors should try to sample the range of variation rather than concentrate on extremes.
Eriogonum has a long history of aboriginal use. Today, several members of the genus are in cultivation, especially in the rock or alpine garden (G. Nicholls 2002).
Members of Eriogonum are hosts for a number of butterfly species, including such endangered ones as the El Segundo dotted-blue (Euphilotes battoides allyni), Smith's dotted blue (Euphilotes enoptes smithi), and Lange's metalmark (Apodemia mormo Iangei). Species of the genus Euphilotes spend their entire life on particular species complexes. Other butterfly species found in association with Eriogonum and relatives (see P. A. Opler and A. B . Wright 1999) include the western green hairstreak (Callophrys affinis), desert green or Comstock's hairstreak (C. comstocki), bramble hairstreak (C. dumetorum), Lembert's hairstreak (C. lemberti), Sheridan's green hairstreak (C. sheridani), green hairstreak (C. viridis), varied blue (Chalceria heteronea), Rocky Mountain dotted-blue (Euphilotes ancilla), Bauer's dotted-blue (E. baueri), Bernardino dotted-blue (E. bernardino), Ellis's dotted-blue (E. ellisi), Pacific dotted-blue (E. enoptes), intermediate dotted-blue (E. intermedia), Mojave dotted-blue (E. mojave), pallid dotted-blue (E. pallescens), Rita dotted-blue (E. rita), Spalding's dotted-blue (E. spaldingi), Gorgon copper (Gaeides gorgon), gayas or Edward's blue (Hemiargus ceranus gyas), blue copper (Lycaena heteronea), small blue (Philotiella speciosa), Boisduval's blue (Plebeius icarioides), acmon blue (P. acmon), lupine blue (P. lupini), veined blue (P. neurona), California hairstreak (Satyrium californica), nut-brown hairstreak (S. saepium), Avalon scrub-hairstreak (Strymon avalona), and gray hairstreak (S. melinus). Flowering plants of Eriogonum are infrequently visited by the sooty hairstreak (Satyrium fulginosum), the flowers being a source of nectar for adults . According to Opler, several additional species and subspecies of these butterflies remain to be described.
Species Eriogonum compositum
, infrequently polygamodioecious, 2-4(-7) ×
2-5 dm; floccose
. Stems: caudex
flowering stems erect, slender or stout, hollow, often slightly fistulose,
arising at nodes of caudex branches and at distal nodes of short,
nonflowering aerial branches, 1-5 dm, floccose or glabrous. Leaves
basal, occasionally in rosettes; petiole
4-10(-15) cm, tomentose
lanceolate or ovate
to deltoid, (2-) 7-25 × (0.7-) 1-8
cm, densely white-lanate to tomentose abaxially, less so to glabrate
and greenish adaxially, margins
or compound-umbellate, 3-20 × 3-20 cm; branches floccose
or glabrous; bracts 3-several, leaflike or semileaflike at proximal
to linear-lanceolate, 1-3(-6) cm, scalelike distally,
usually 1-5 × 0.5-3 mm.
Involucres 1 per node, turbinate-campanulate
, 6-10 × 4-10 mm, sparsely to densely lanate
weakly glandular-puberulent, or glabrous; teeth (5-) 7-10, usually
not lobelike, erect to weakly reflexed
, 2-4 mm. Flowers 5-6
mm, including 0.7-1.5 mm stipelike base
; perianth pale
yellow, occasionally ochroleucous
, glabrous; tepals monomorphic
to oblong-ovate; stamens slightly exserted, 4-8 mm; filaments
proximally. Achenes light brown, 5-6 mm, glabrous except
for sparsely pubescent
Eriogonum compositum is one of the more attractive members of the genus and does well in cultivation. The three varieties are only weakly differentiated, and both var. lancifolium and var. leianthum merge with var. compositum. The butterfly Euphilotes enoptes is a pollinator of this species. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Flower Color: pale yellow
Size: 18-24" tall.
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons.
- knotweed, renouées
- Subfamily: Eriogonoideae ()
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Douglas ex
: Edwards's Bot.
Reg. 21: ad t. 1774 1835
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Eriogonum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 521 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
E. abertianum (Abert Buckwheat) · E. abertianum var. abertianum (Abert's Buckwheat) · E. abertianum var. cyclosepalum (Abert's Buckwheat) · E. acaule (Pointed Eriogonum) · E. alatum (Wind Wildbuckwheat) · E. alatum var. alatum (Winged Wild Buckwheat) · E. alatum var. glabriusculum (Winged Buckwheat) · E. alatum var. mogollense (Winged Buckwheat) · E. aliquantum (Cimarron Buckwheat) · E. allenii (Shalebarren Buckwheat) · E. alpinum (Trinity Buckwheat) · E. ammophilum (Ibex Buckwheat) · E. ampullaceum (Mono Buckwheat) · E. androsaceum (Rockjasmine Buckwheat) · E. anemophilum (West Humboldt Buckwheat) · E. angulosum (Angle-Stemmed Wild-Buckwheat) · E. annuum (Annual Buckwheat) · E. apiculatum (San Jacinto Buckwheat) · E. apricum (Ione Buckwheat) · E. apricum var. apricum (Ione Buckwheat) · E. apricum var. prostratum (Irish Hill Buckwheat) · E. arborescens (Santa Cruz Island Buckwheat) · E. arcuatum var. arcuatum (Baker's Wild Buckwheat) · E. aretioides (Red Canyon Buckwheat) · E. argillosum (Clay Buckwheat) · E. argophyllum (Ruby Valley Buckwheat) · E. arizonicum (Arizona Buckwheat) · E. artificis (Kaye's Wild Buckwheat) · E. atrorubens (Buckwheat) · E. atrorubens atrorubens (Buckwheat) · E. baileyi (Bailey Buckwheat) · E. baileyi var. baileyi (Bailey's Buckwheat) · E. baileyi var. praebens (Bailey's Buckwheat) · E. batemanii (Bateman Buckwheat) · E. beatleyae (Beatley Buckwheat) · E. bicolor (Pretty Buckwheat) · E. bifurcatum (Forked Buckwheat) · E. blissianum (Bliss' Buckwheat) · E. brachyanthum (Shortflower Buckwheat) · E. brachypodum (Parry's Buckwheat) · E. brandegeei (Brandegee Wild Buckwheat) · E. breedlovei (Pilute Buckwheat) · E. breedlovei var. breedlovei (Piute Buckwheat) · E. breedlovei var. shevockii (Needle's Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule (Short-Stemmed Wild-Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. bannockense (Bannock Wild Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. brevicaule (Shortstem Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. cottamii (Cottam's Buckwheat) · E. brevicaule var. laxifolium (Goldenball Eriogonum) · E. brevicaule var. micranthum (Shortstem Buckwheat) · E. butterworthianum (Butterworth's Buckwheat) · E. caespitosum (Matted Buckwheat) · E. caespitosum var. sublineare (Matted Wild Buckwheat) · E. capillare (San Carlos Buckwheat) · E. capistratum (Hidden Buckwheat) · E. capistratum var. capistratum (Hidden Buckwheat) · E. capistratum var. muhlickii (Muhlick's Buckwheat) · E. capistratum var. welshii (Welsh's Buckwheat) · E. cernuum (Nodding Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. cernum (Nodding Wild Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. cernuum (Nodding Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. purpurascens (Nodding Wild Buckwheat) · E. cernuum var. viminale (Nodding Buckwheat) · E. cespitosum (Matted Buckwheat) · E. chrysops (Bitterroot Buckwheat) · E. cinereum (Coastal Buckwheat) · E. cithariforme (Cithara Buckwheat) · E. cithariforme var. agninum (Cithara Buckwheat) · E. cithariforme var. cithariforme (Cithara Buckwheat) · E. clavatum (Hoover's Desert Trumpet) · E. clavellatum (Clay-Loving Wild-Buckwheat) · E. codium (Basalt Desert Buckwheat) · E. collinum (Hill Buckwheat) · E. coloradense (Colorado Buckwheat) · E. compositum (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. compositum (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. lancifolium (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. leianthum (Arrowleaf Buckwheat) · E. compositum var. pilicaulis (Arrowleaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. concinnum (Darin Buckwheat) · E. congdonii (Congdon Buckwheat) · E. contiguum (Ash Meadows Buckwheat) · E. contortum (Grand Buckwheat) · E. correllii (Correll's Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum (Corymbed Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. aureum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. corymbosum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. glutinosum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. heilii (Crisp-Leaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. nilesii (Crisp-Leaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. orbiculatum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. revealianum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. thompsonae (Crisp-Leaf Wild Buckwheat) · E. corymbosum var. velutinum (Crispleaf Buckwheat) · E. covilleanum (Coville's Buckwheat) · E. crocatum (Conejo Buckwheat) · E. cronquistii (Bull Mountain Buckwheat) · E. crosbyae (Crosby's Buckwheat) · E. cusickii (Cusick's Buckwheat) · E. darrovii (Carrot Buckwheat)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A flora of California, by Willis Linn Jepson. San Francisco, Calif., Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, 1909- url p. 426, p. 426.
- A flora of northwest America: containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia / by Thomas Howell. Vol. 1, Phanerogamae. Portland, Or.: [s.n.], 1903. url p. 571.
- A study of the vegetation of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. .. Lincoln, Neb. url p. 68.
- Alpine plants, a practical manual for their culture, with a supplementary essay on The small rock-garden. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1906, 1907. url .
- Alpine plants: a practical method for growing the rarer and more difficult alpine flowers / by W.A. Clark; with illustrations from photographs by Clarence Elliott. London: C. Scribner, 1901. url p. 107.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 27, p. 28.
- Appendix to the first twenty-three volumes of Edwards's botanical register: consisting of a complete alphabetical and systematical index of names, synomymes and matter, adjusted to the present state of systematical botany, together with a sketch of the vegetation of the Swan by John Lindley. London: James Ridgway, 1839. url p. xiii.
- Botany Cambridge, Mass., John Wilson and Son, 1880 url p. 20, p. 480.
- Botany. By W. H. Brewer, Sereno Watson, and Asa Gray. Boston, Little, Brown, 1880. url p. 480.
- Botany. Cambridge, Mass.Welch, Bigelow, University Press, 1876-80. url p. 17, p. 480.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1912 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 245, p. 829.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 39 1912 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 309, p. 341, p. 646.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 193.
- Companion to the Botanical magazine: being a journal, containing such interesting botanical information as does not come within the prescribed limits of the magazine; with occasional figures /by W.J. Hooker. 2 1836-1837 London: Printed by E. Conchman. .. for the proprietor, S. Curtis, 1835-1836 [i.e., 1835-1837] url p. 141.
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 309.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 11 1906 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 234, p. 237, p. 248.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 79 1853 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url , p. 5.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 277, p. 293.
- Edwards's botanical register. London: James Ridgway, 1829-1847. url , , , , , , p. 2019.
- Field book of western wild flowers, by Margaret Armstrong in collaboration with J.J. Thornber. .. with five hundred illustrations in black and white, and forty-eight plates in color drawn from nature by the author. London, C. [sic] P. Putnam's Sons, 1915. url , fig. 46, p. 586, p. 92, p. 93.
- Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: New Era, 1914. url p. 82.
- Flora of the northwest coast, including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon. Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1915. url .
- Flora of the northwest coast: including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: Press of the New era printing company, 1915. url p. 126.
- Flora of the southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho, Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1914. url .
- Flora of the state of Washington / by Charles V. Piper. Washington: G.P.O., 1906 url p. 237.
- Garden flowers: how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr. Boston: J. E. Tilton and Company, 1866. url p. 155, p. 155.
- Hooker, W. J. Flora boreali-americana, or, the botany of the northern parts of British America: compiled principally from the plants collected by Dr. Richardson & Mr. Drummond on the late northern expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. To which are added (by permission of the Horticultural society of London, ) those of Mr. Douglas, from north-west America, and of other naturalists /by Sir William Jackson Hooker. 2 1840 London, H.G. Bohn -1840. url p. 135.
- Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America 1823-1827, together with a particular description of thirty-three species of American oaks and eighteen species of Pinus, with appendices containing a list of the plants introduced by Douglas and an account of h London, W. Wesley & Son, 1914. url , p. 328.
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 277, p. 293.
- Mount Rainier: a record of exploration / edited by Edmond S. Meany. New York: Macmillan, 1916. url p. 278.
- Notes on western range forbs: Equisetaceae through Fumariaceae / by William A. Dayton. Washington, D.C.: Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1960. url p. 72.
- Plant indicators: the relation of plant communities to process and practice. WashingtonCarnegie Institution of Washington1920 url p. 193.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 398.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 121, p. 713.
- The American botanist: a monthly journal for the plant lover. Binghamton, N.Y.: Willard N. Clute & Co., 1901-1948. url p. 49.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson; illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1906. url p. 566.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 521, p. 81.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 260.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 57 1997 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url fig. 1, page 2.
- The flora of the Palouse region. Containing descriptions of all the Spermatophytes and Pteridophytes known to grow wild in the area within 35 kilometers of Pullman, Washington. By Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Pullman, Washington Agricultural College and School of Science, 1901. url p. 60.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a by L. H. Bailey; illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. . New York, The Macmillan Co.; [etc., etc.]1916-1917 [v.5 1916] url p. 1135.
- University studies of the University of Nebraska. Lincoln. url p. 68.
- Zoe:a biological journal. 4 1893 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 175.
- Li Anjen, Kao Tsoching, Mao Zumei & Liu Yulan. 1998. Polygonaceae. In: Li Anjen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(1): 1209.
- Reveal, J. L. 1973b. Eriogonum (Polygonaceae) of Utah. Phytologia 25: 169-217.
- Reveal, J. L. 1976. Eriogonum (Polygonaceae) of Arizona and New Mexico. Phytologia 34: 409-484.
- Reveal, J. L. 1985. An annotated key to Eriogonum (Polygonaceae) of Nevada. Great Basin Naturalist 45: 493-519.
- Stokes, S. G. 1936. The Genus Eriogonum, a Preliminary Study Based on Geographical Distribution. San Francisco.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 02, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647198
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21097
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494459
- GRIN Nomen Number: 452868
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21097
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 694078-1
- MoBot NameID: 26000486
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDPGN08180
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERUMT2 ERC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 38053
- Anjen Li, Bojian Bao, Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Suk-pyo Hong, John McNeill, Sergei L. Mosyakin, Hideaki Ohba & Chong-wook Park "Polygonaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James L. Reveal "Eriogonum". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]