Common Names in English:
Ten-Angle Pipewort, Tenangle Pipewort
. Leaves in a rosette, grasslike, linear
, occasionally thinly filiform
, often thin and transparent, fenestrate, base
. Inflorescences capitate, globose
; scapes thin, twisted, angled
, base surrounded by a bladeless, tubular
. Flowers 2- or 3-merous, bracteate
, with both sexes usually in same head
. Male flowers: sepals 2 or 3, connate
; petals 2 or 3, often inconspicuous; stamens 6. Female flowers: sepals 2 or 3, free or connate; petals absent to 4, free; ovary (1--) 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, basal; style 1, 1--3-branched. Fruit a capsule, thin, loculicidal. Seeds small; testa usually reticulate
and prickly; endosperm with abundant starch
Ten genera and ca. 1150 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; one genus and 35 species (13 endemic) in China.
, often cespitose, rosulate. Roots
: larger roots unbranched, pale
, thickened, spongy
. Stems rarely sparingly branched, short or elongate
. Leaves many ranked
in flat or high spiral
basally pale, distally greener, linear-attenuate or triangular-acuminate, lingulate
, narrowing gradually or abruptly from base
, base noticeably lacunate
, less distinctly so distally. Inflorescences: scape sheaths
(often 2--3-cleft) ; scapes 1--several per rosette, glabrous
pale to dark, white, gray, or gray-brown, hemispheric
or short-cylindric; receptacle hairy
or glabrous; involucral bracts
obscured or not obscured by inflorescence, pale to dark, chaffy
bracts narrower, thinner than involucral bracts, often scarious. Flowers mostly with staminate
on same plants
, 2--3-merous; sepals 2(--3), adnate
to stipelike base, boat-shaped
, scarious, apex often covered with multicellular
, hairs mealy white or translucent
, frequently club-shaped; petals 2(--3), narrower, shorter than sepals, apex hairy, hairs club-shaped, glands
, dark, rarely pale. Staminate flowers
; petals separated from sepals by androphore, diverging as lobes
from apex; stamens 3--4 or 6, 2--3 alternating with petals; apex of staminal
column with 2--3 glands, glands unappendaged; filaments
arising from androphore rim; anthers
2-locular, 4-sporangiate, dorsifixed
, usually versatile, well exserted at anthesis
, jet black (except in E. cinereum) . Pistillate flowers: gynophore
separating petals from sepals, stipelike; pistil 2(--3) -carpellate; style 1, unappendaged, style branches 2(--3) .
Species ca. 400: mostly pantropic, mostly aquatic or on wet, mainly acidic substrates.
Species Eriocaulon decangulare
, 30--110 cm. Leaves linear
abruptly, then gradually, narrowing, 10--40(--50) cm, apex acute
. Inflorescences: scape sheaths
shorter than principal leaves;
scapes linear, distally 1--2(--3) mm wide, multiribbed; heads
to nearly globose
, 7--15 mm wide, hard, very slightly
flattened when pressed; receptacle copiously hairy
; involucral bracts
, obscured by reflexed proximal bracteoles and flowers, straw-colored,
to lanceolate, 2--4 mm, margins
erose to entire, apex
or apex with white, club-shaped hairs
; inner bracts
, linear to oblong
3--4 mm, margins entire, sometimes becoming erose, apex narrowly
acuminate, glabrous or apex with white, club-shaped hairs. Staminate
flowers: sepals 2, yellow-white, linear, curved
, 3 mm, distal surface
abaxially, adaxially with white, club-shaped hairs; androphore
petals 2, yellow-white, translucent
, triangular to linear, nearly
equal, with small tuft of white, club-shaped hairs abaxially at apex;
stamens 4; anthers
flowers: sepals 2, yellow-white,
linear, 2--3 mm, apex acute, abaxially with white, club-shaped hairs
at apex; petals 2, pale, spatulate
or narrowly elliptic
, 1--2 mm,
abaxially with translucent hairs proximally, white, club-shaped hairs
distally, or adaxially glabrescent; pistil 2-carpellate. Seeds pale
, 0.75--1 mm, very finely cancellate
with cancellae concealed by rows
of delicate nearly appressed
A possible variety, Eriocaulon decangulare var. latifolium Chapman ex Moldenke [in N. L. Britton et al. , N. Amer. Fl. 19(1) : 21. 1937], has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This plant typically is in the taller range and has thicker stems and scapes than in the type; it has very stiff blunt leaves to 50 cm ´ 13--20 mm with thicker scapes, heads 13--20 mm wide, and floral parts in the high range for the species. It occurs in wetter situations than usual for the species, and (fide R. R. Haynes, pers. comm. ) flowers later. This morphology occurs in northwestern Florida and southern Alabama within boggy edges of cypress-titi-Nyssa on permanently wet substrates. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July. • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Dark Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Porous • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring • Growth Rate: Moderate • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 2.6 • Size: 6-12" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 22 meters (72 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Summer • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 4.0 • Maximum pH: 7.6 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 40 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -8 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 160
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Family: Eriocaulaceae () - Richard, 1811 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - Pipewort Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Commelinanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
E. statices Crantz • Eriocaulon serotinum Walter • Randalia decangularis Palisot De Beauvois • Symphachne xyrioides (Linnaeus) Palisot De Beauvois
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Eriocaulon
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. aquaticum (Seven-Angle Pipewort) · E. benthamii (Bentham's Pipewort) · E. cinereum (Ashy Pipewort) · E. compressum (Flattened Pipewort) · E. compressum var. compressum (Flattened Pipewort) · E. decangulare (Ten-Angle Pipewort) · E. decangulare L. var. latifolium Chapm. ex Moldenke (Tenangle Pipewort) · E. decangulare var. decangulare (Tenangle Pipewort) · E. decangulare var. latifolium (Tenangle Pipewort) · E. heterolepis (Buttonhead Pipewort) · E. koernickianum (Gulf Pipewort) · E. koernickianum van (Gulf Pipewort) · E. lineare (Narrow Pipewort) · E. longifolium (Pipewort) · E. microcephalum (Small-Head Pipewort) · E. nigrobracteatum (Black-Bract Pipewort) · E. parkeri (Estuary Pipewort) · E. ravenelii (Ravenel's Pipewort) · E. stellulatum (Starry Pipewort) · E. texense (Texas Pipewort) · E. truncatum (Short Pipe-Wort)
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- Ma Weiliang. 1997. Eriocaulaceae. In: Wu Kuo-fang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13(3): 20--63.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
- "Eriocaulon decangulare". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 24, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 6 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2659871
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-243631
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13756936
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:335225-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 39195
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 335225-1
- MoBot NameID: 12400351
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMERI01033 PMERI01030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERDEM4 ERD
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37484
- Wei-liang Ma, Zhixiang Zhang & Thomas Stützel "Eriocaulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 7. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Eriocaulon". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Eriocaulon decangulare". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 63.380 based on 87 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]