Common Names in English:
. Leaves in a rosette, grasslike, linear
, occasionally thinly filiform
, often thin and transparent, fenestrate, base
. Inflorescences capitate, globose
; scapes thin, twisted, angled
, base surrounded by a bladeless, tubular
. Flowers 2- or 3-merous, bracteate
, with both sexes usually in same head
. Male flowers: sepals 2 or 3, connate
; petals 2 or 3, often inconspicuous; stamens 6. Female flowers: sepals 2 or 3, free or connate; petals absent to 4, free; ovary (1--) 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, basal; style 1, 1--3-branched. Fruit a capsule, thin, loculicidal. Seeds small; testa usually reticulate
and prickly; endosperm with abundant starch
Ten genera and ca. 1150 species: mainly in tropical and subtropical regions; one genus and 35 species (13 endemic) in China.
, often cespitose, rosulate. Roots
: larger roots unbranched, pale
, thickened, spongy
. Stems rarely sparingly branched, short or elongate
. Leaves many ranked
in flat or high spiral
basally pale, distally greener, linear-attenuate or triangular-acuminate, lingulate
, narrowing gradually or abruptly from base
, base noticeably lacunate
, less distinctly so distally. Inflorescences: scape sheaths
(often 2--3-cleft) ; scapes 1--several per rosette, glabrous
pale to dark, white, gray, or gray-brown, hemispheric
or short-cylindric; receptacle hairy
or glabrous; involucral bracts
obscured or not obscured by inflorescence, pale to dark, chaffy
bracts narrower, thinner than involucral bracts, often scarious. Flowers mostly with staminate
on same plants
, 2--3-merous; sepals 2(--3), adnate
to stipelike base, boat-shaped
, scarious, apex often covered with multicellular
, hairs mealy white or translucent
, frequently club-shaped; petals 2(--3), narrower, shorter than sepals, apex hairy, hairs club-shaped, glands
, dark, rarely pale. Staminate flowers
; petals separated from sepals by androphore, diverging as lobes
from apex; stamens 3--4 or 6, 2--3 alternating with petals; apex of staminal
column with 2--3 glands, glands unappendaged; filaments
arising from androphore rim; anthers
2-locular, 4-sporangiate, dorsifixed
, usually versatile, well exserted at anthesis
, jet black (except in E. cinereum) . Pistillate flowers: gynophore
separating petals from sepals, stipelike; pistil 2(--3) -carpellate; style 1, unappendaged, style branches 2(--3) .
Species ca. 400: mostly pantropic, mostly aquatic or on wet, mainly acidic substrates.
Species Eriocaulon compressum
, 20--70 cm. Leaves linear-attenuate, 5--30 cm, apex
. Inflorescences: scape sheaths
; scapes linear
, 1--3 mm wide, multiribbed (ribs
white except for dark gray or near black exserted tips
to subglobose, 10--20
mm wide, soft, much flattened when pressed; receptacle pilose
bracts frequently squarrose, later obscured by mature
and flowers, gray, broadly ovate
, 2--3 mm,
entire, apex rounded
; inner bracts, receptacular
bracteoles dark gray, spatulate-linear to oblong, 2--3 mm, margins
entire, apex acute with white, club-shaped hairs
. Staminate flowers
sepals 2, pale
or with dark apex, linear or linear-spatulate, 2--4
mm, apex acute to blunt
white, club-shaped hairs; androphore
broadly club-shaped; petals 2, pale, oblong, conspicuously unequal,
with pale, club-shaped hairs, smaller
lobe glabrous or with a few hairs at apex; stamens 3--4(--6) ; anthers
flowers: sepals 2, dark at apex, oblong-spatulate,
2.5--3 mm, abaxially with mealy white, club-shaped hairs, adaxially
hairs; petals 2, pale, oblong-spatulate, apex acute,
abaxially with mealy white, club-shaped hairs, adaxially with translucent
hairs; pistil 2-carpellate. Seeds dark lustrous
brown, broadly ovoid
to near round
, 0.5 mm, mostly minutely spiny-papillate.
Eriocaulon compressum is polymorphic in habit. Male flowers vary considerably in length and degree of connation, and female flowers are often sterile . Of the southeastern coastal plain species this and the similar, but proportionately smaller, E. lineare, are the most aquatic , the former most common around clay-based ponds , the latter around karst ponds. Unlike the more northern E. aquaticum, these two species seldom frequent the shallows of flowing streams . [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February, March, April. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 14 meters (47 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Family: Eriocaulaceae () - Richard, 1811 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - Pipewort Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Commelinanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
E. cephalotes Michaux • E. gnaphalodes Michaux • Eriocaulon compressum var. harperi Moldenke • Eriocaulon decangulare Walter 1788 • Sensu Poiret • Sphaerochloa compressa Palisot De Beauvois
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Eriocaulon
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. aquaticum (Seven-Angle Pipewort) · E. benthamii (Bentham's Pipewort) · E. cinereum (Ashy Pipewort) · E. compressum (Flattened Pipewort) · E. compressum var. compressum (Flattened Pipewort) · E. decangulare (Ten-Angle Pipewort) · E. decangulare L. var. latifolium Chapm. ex Moldenke (Tenangle Pipewort) · E. decangulare var. decangulare (Tenangle Pipewort) · E. decangulare var. latifolium (Tenangle Pipewort) · E. heterolepis (Buttonhead Pipewort) · E. koernickianum (Gulf Pipewort) · E. koernickianum van (Gulf Pipewort) · E. lineare (Narrow Pipewort) · E. longifolium (Pipewort) · E. microcephalum (Small-Head Pipewort) · E. nigrobracteatum (Black-Bract Pipewort) · E. parkeri (Estuary Pipewort) · E. ravenelii (Ravenel's Pipewort) · E. stellulatum (Starry Pipewort) · E. texense (Texas Pipewort) · E. truncatum (Short Pipe-Wort)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2659874
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-243602
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13756681
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:335201-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 39198
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 335201-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMERI01020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERCOH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37483
- Wei-liang Ma, Zhixiang Zhang & Thomas Stützel "Eriocaulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 7. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Eriocaulon". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Eriocaulon compressum". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 30.420 based on 29 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]