Common Names in English:
Spreading Daisy, Spreading Fleabane
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, biennials, or perennials [subshrubs
], (0.5-) 2-90(-100) cm (taprooted, fibrous-rooted, or rhizomatous
and fibrous-rooted, sometimes with simple
or branched caudices, sometimes stoloniferous
) . Stems erect
, or prostrate
, simple or branched, glabrous
, sometimes glandular
2-seriate, minute, sometimes stipitate
) . Leaves basal and/or cauline (basal persistent or not to flowering) ; alternate; sessile or petiolate
1-nerved (3-nerved), linear
to lanceolate, oblanceolate
, or spatulate
entire or ± dentate
glabrous or hairy, sometimes glandular. Heads usually radiate
, sometimes discoid
, or arching-pendent in bud), borne singly or in loose
arrays. Involucres turbinate
, 5-35 mm diam. Phyllaries 30-125(-150) in 2-5 series, 1- or 3-nerved (nerves
golden-resinous; usually flat, rarely broadly keeled
), narrowly elliptic- to linear-lanceolate, unequal to equal, margins scarious
or not, faces hairy or glabrous, sometimes glandular. Receptacles flat to conic, pitted
, epaleate. Ray florets 0 or 12-350 in 1(-2+) series, pistillate
; corollas usually white to bluish or purplish to pink, less commonly yellow (coiling
from apices, reflexing at tube/lamina junction, or remaining ± straight and spreading
) . Peripheral florets (disciform heads) 50-200 in 1-4 series, pistillate. Disc florets 25-450, bisexual
, fertile; corollas yellow (nerves orange-resinous), tubes
shorter than usually tubular
, sometimes strongly inflated
5, erect to spreading, deltate; style-branch appendages
mostly deltate (papillate
) . Cypselae (tan) oblong
to oblong-obovoid, compressed
to flattened, 2(-4) -nerved, or subterete, 5-14-nerved (sect. Wyomingia and some other species), faces glabrous or strigose
; pappi persistent
or readily falling, usually of outer setae or scales
(0.1-0.4 mm), sometimes connate
, plus 5-40(-50), stramineous
, sometimes pappi only on ray or only on disc cypselae, or 0. x = 9.
Species ca. 390: nearly worldwide, mostly in temperate regions .
The North American and Central American species of Erigeron have been divided into sections (G. L. Nesom 1989c, 1990g, 1994b; Nesom and R. D. Noyes 1999), emphasizing variation in habit (especially taprooted versus rhizomatous and fibrous-rooted), vestiture , arrangement of heads in arrays and orientation before flowering (erect, nodding, or arching-pendent), behavior of ray corolla laminae (straight, reflexing, or coiling), cypsela and pappus morphology, and other morphologic features. The sequence and groupings of species treated here reflect significant modifications of earlier arrangements.
G. L. Nesom (1989d) hypothesized that Trimorpha [Erigeron sect. Trimorpha (Cassini) de Candolle] is separate from Erigeron, more closely related to Conyza. Studies by W. Huber and colleagues (e.g. , Huber 1993; Huber and Ã–. Nilsson 1995) and R. D. Noyes (2000) have shown that Trimorpha species are closely related to those of sect. Erigeron and that both sections are relatively recently derived within the genus. As suggested by Nesom (1994b) and by Huber and Nilsson, and as discussed in detail and experimentally confirmed by Noyes, autogamous breeding systems apparently have arisen independently in groups of Astereae, including Trimorpha and Conyza, where the pistillate florets of a head are greatly increased in number (often outnumbering the bisexual florets), in multiple series, the inner sometimes with filiform , elaminate corollas, and the outer with reduced laminae.
In the molecular analysis by R. D. Noyes (2000), Conyzinae comprises Erigeron, American Conyza, the four genera of the South American Leptostelma group, and the North American Aphanostephus; the cladistically basal and terminal taxa of the subtribe are members of Erigeron. Noyes (p. 107) observed that "strictly speaking, although the Conyzinae form a monophyletic group [with caveats regarding Old World Conyza], Erigeron is paraphyletic, as five other genera are derived from within it." The molecular study included 46 of the 173 species treated here.
Polyploidy is common among species of Erigeron, and agamospermy apparently is a common correlate of polyploidy, especially in odd-polyploid plants . Molecular phylogenetic data (R. D. Noyes 2000) indicate that agamospermy has arisen at least three times within the genus.
In the descriptions and keys , some characteristics are assumed constant unless otherwise indicated (usually in parentheses) ; particular application of terms is discussed here. The indumentum of erigerons is often complex ; in order to simplify descriptions, glabrous applies here only to absence of non-glandular hairs, eglandular to the absence of glandular hairs; a totally glabrous plant (in the usual sense) would be glabrous and eglandular. Petiole margins are eciliate or sparsely ciliate unless otherwise indicated. Leaf bases of most erigerons are broadened or not, not thickened and white-indurate. Margins of leaves in some erigerons are entire but for tiny callous enations that correspond to the callous tips of teeth on some leaves with serrate margins. Here, margins with such tiny enations are described as denticulate. Heads of some erigerons are "pseudodisciform" in the sense that the outer pistillate florets have relatively small, ± filiform laminae (such florets are technically "ray florets" even though their "rays" are inconspicuous) and the inner pistillate florets have no laminae on their corollas. The distinction between corollas without and those with laminae is sometimes arbitrary . Ray laminae are considered strap-shaped and spreading unless otherwise indicated. Descriptions of ray color as "blue" should be read as lavender-blue.
Species Erigeron divergens
or short-lived perennials
, (7-) 12-40(-70) cm; taprooted,
if perennial. Stems (single or multiple
, densely and evenly puberulous-hirsutulous
to spreading-descending or -ascending, often crinkly,
bases not thickened), minutely glandular
at least distally, usually
throughout. Leaves basal (usually deciduous) and cauline;
basal blades obovate-spatulate, 10-70 × 4--14 mm, cauline gradually
reduced distally, margins
entire or with 2-3 pairs of teeth or lobes
to loosely strigoso-hirsute, sometimes sparsely glandular.
Heads (in early season
, 1-) 5-100+ (buds nodding
3-4 × (5-) 7-11 mm.
Phyllaries in 3-4 series, hirsute,
minutely glandular. Ray florets 75-150; corollas white, drying
lilac, without abaxial
midstripe, (2-) 4-9.5 mm, laminae
or reflexing (remaining relatively straight). Disc corollas
1.8-2.3 mm (throats
and slightly inflated
0.9-1.2 mm, 2-nerved (nerves
whitish), faces sparsely strigose
outer of setae or scales
, inner of 6-9(-12) bristles
= 18, 27, 36. [source]
Polyploidy and agamospermy apparently are common in Erigeron divergens and contribute to the variability and, probably to some extent, the polymorphism characteristic of this species. Diploids appear to be scattered through the range of the species, at least in its southern part. [source]
The form of Erigeron divergens with persistent , deeply pinnatifid basal leaves with relatively long petioles and tendency toward perenniality (woody taproots ) has been named E. accedens [occurs at 200-1000(-1200) m and flowers Feb-Apr(-May) ]. Such plants have sometimes been identified as E. lobatus, and it is possible that they may have originated as hybrids with it; in most ways they are similar to E. divergens and apparently intergrade with it. The E. accedens form occurs in California, Arizona, New Mexico, southwest Texas, Baja California, northern Sonora, Durango, and Chihuahua, apparently sympatrically with more typical E. divergens, suggesting that the former is stabilized and self-reproductive (probably agamospermic). Available chromosome counts are triploid. Rare plants (e.g. , E. incomptus) may have filiform rays barely extending past the involucre. [source]
Another common form of Erigeron divergens in the broad sense (mostly in Chihuahua, also southern Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona) has bowl-shaped plants with decumbent stems, a discrete taproot, persistent, lobed basal leaves, and solitary heads topping usually simple stems, and usually is early-season in phenology. Further comments related to variation in E. divergens are found under 163. Erigeron multiceps. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Gravelly or sandy flats, riverbanks, meadows, disturbed sites, desert scrubland to grasslands, saltbush, blackbrush, sagebrush, pinyon-juniper, juniper-oak, oak, and ponderosa pine woodlands; 60-2000(-2700) m
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Fleabane [Greek eri, early, or erio, woolly, and geron, old man, perhaps alluding to pappus, which becomes gray and accrescent in some species, or to solitary, woolly heads of some of species]
- Specific epithet:
- Torr. & A.Gray
- Botanical name: - Erigeron divergens Torr. & A.Gray
- Specific epithet: divergens - Torr. & A.Gray
- Genus: Erigeron () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Fleabane [Greek eri, early, or erio, woolly, and geron, old man, perhaps alluding to pappus, which becomes gray and accrescent in some species, or to solitary, woolly heads of some of species]
- Subtribe: Conyzinae ()
- Tribe: Astereae ()
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
E. accedens Greene • E. incomptus A. Gray • E. solisaltator G. L. Nesom • Erigeron divaricatus Nuttall • Erigeron divergens var. typicus Cronq. • Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc.
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: CONABIO, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:03250E34-FCA7-4516-80A8-73D5E7D800CB
Last scrutiny: 13-Aug-09
Members of the genus Erigeron
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 358 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
E. abajoensis (Abajo Daisy) · E. acer (Blue Fleabane) · E. acer acer (Bitter Fleabane) · E. acomanus (Acoma Fleabane) · E. acris (Bitter Boreal Daisy) · E. acris debilis (Bitter Fleabane) · E. acris politus (Bitter Fleabane) · E. aequifolius (Hall's Daisy) · E. algidus (Sierra Daisy) · E. aliceae (Alice Eastwood's Fleabane) · E. allocotus (Big Horn Fleabane) · E. alpiniformis (Alpine Fleabane) · E. anchana (Sierra Ancha Fleabane) · E. angustatus (Serpentine Fleabane) · E. annuus (Annual Fleabane) · E. annuus annuus (Eastern Daisy Fleabane) · E. aphanactis (Beach Daisy) · E. aphanactis var. aphanactis (Rayless Shaggy Fleabane) · E. aphanactis var. congestus (Rayless Shaggy Fleabane) · E. arenarioides (Sand Fleabane) · E. argentatus (Silver Fleabane) · E. arisolius (Arid Throne Fleabane) · E. arizonicus (Arizona Fleabane) · E. asper (Rough Fleabane) · E. asperugineus (Idaho Daisy) · E. aurantiacus (Double Orange Daisy) · E. aureus (Alpine Yellow Fleabane) · E. aureus Greene var. acutifolius Raup (Alpine Yellow Fleabane) · E. aureus var. acutifolius (Alpine Yellow Fleabane) · E. aureus var. aureus (Alpine Yellow Fleabane) · E. austiniae (Dwarf Yellow Daisy) · E. awapensis (Awapa Daisy) · E. 'Azure Fairy' (Azure Fairy Fleabane) · E. barbellulatus (Shining Fleabane) · E. basalticus (Basalt Daisy) · E. bellidiastrum (Western Daisy Fleabane) · E. bellidiastrum Nutt. var. arenarius (Greene) Nesom (Sandwort Daisy Fleabane) · E. bellidiastrum var. arenarius (Sandwort Daisy Fleabane) · E. bellidiastrum var. bellidiastrum (Western Daisy Fleabane) · E. bellidiastrum var. robustus (Western Daisy Fleabane) · E. bellioides (Bellorita) · E. bigelovii (Bigelow's Fleabane) · E. biolettii (Biolett's Erigeron) · E. bistiensis (Bisti Fleabane) · E. blochmaniae (Blochman Leafy Daisy) · E. bloomeri (Bloomer Fleabane) · E. bloomeri var. bloomeri (Scabland Fleabane) · E. bloomeri var. nudatus (Scabland Fleabane) · E. bloomeri var. nudatus (Gray) Cronq. (Scabland Fleabane) · E. bloomeri var. pubens (Scabland Fleabane) · E. borealis (Boreal Fleabane) · E. breweri (Brewer's Daisy) · E. breweri var. bisanctus (Brewer's Erigeron) · E. breweri var. breweri (Brewer's Fleabane) · E. breweri var. covillei (Coville's Erigeron) · E. breweri var. covillei (Greene) Nesom (Coville's Erigeron) · E. breweri var. jacinteus (Brewer's Fleabane) · E. breweri var. jacinteus (Hall) Cronq. (Brewer's Fleabane) · E. breweri var. klamathensis (Klamath Erigeron) · E. breweri var. klamathensis Nesom (Klamath Erigeron) · E. breweri var. porphyreticus (Brewer's Fleabane) · E. caespitosus (Caespitose Fleabane) · E. caespitosus capillaris (Tufted Fleabane) · E. caespitosus uncialis (Tufted Fleabane) · E. caespitosus var. caninum (Tufted Fleabane) · E. caespitosus var. pectinacea (Tufted Fleabane) · E. calvus (Bald Daisy) · E. canus (Hoary Fleabane) · E. cascadensis (Cascade Fleabane) · E. cervinus (Siskiyou Daisy) · E. chrysopsidis (Dwarf Yellow Fleabane) · E. clokeyi (Clokey's Daisy) · E. colomexicanus (Running Daisy) · E. compactus (Cushion Daisy) · E. compactus var. cognatum (Cushion Daisy) · E. compactus var. coloradoensis (Cushion Daisy) · E. compactus var. covillei (Cushion Daisy) · E. compactus var. praebens (Cushion Daisy) · E. compositus (Cutleaf Daisy) · E. compositus var. compositus (Dwarf Mountain Fleabane) · E. concinnus (Hairy Daisy) · E. concinnus var. concinnus (Navajo Fleabane) · E. concinnus var. condensatus (Navajo Fleabane) · E. concinnus var. subglaber (Navajo Fleabane) · E. consimilis (Fern-Leaf Fleabane) · E. corymbosus (Long-Leaf Fleabane) · E. coulteri (Coulter Fleabane) · E. covillei (Coville's Erigeron) · E. cronquistii (Cronquist Daisy) · E. cuneifolius (Wedgeleaf Fleabane) · E. 'Darkest of All' (Fleabane) · E. decumbens (Meadow Fleabane) · E. decumbens var. decumbens (Willamette Fleabane) · E. decumbens var. decumbens Nutt. (Willamette Fleabane) · E. decumbens var. robustior (Robust Daisy) · E. disparipilus (White Cushion Fleabane) · E. divergens (Spreading Daisy) · E. eatonii (Eaton Fleabane) · E. eatonii Gray var. eatonii Gray (Eaton Fleabane) · E. eatonii Gray var. lavandulus Strother & Ferlatte (Eaton's Fleabane)
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- The flora of Boulder, Colorado, and vicinity, by Francis Potter Daniels. .. [Columbia, Mo.]The University of Missouri, 1911. url p. 15.
- Torrey, J. & A. Gray A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system /by John Torrey and Asa Gray. 2 1841-1843 New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838-. url p. 175.
- Torrey, J. Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey: made under the direction of the secretary of the Interior /by William H. Emory, major First Cavalry, and United States commissioner. 2(1) 1859 Washington: C. Wendell, printer, 1857-59. url p. 77, p. 77.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 63.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 110.
- University of California publications in zoology. Berkeley: University Press, 1906- url p. 50.
- Vascular plant and sensitive plant species inventory for the highland mountains, Deerlodge National Forest; prepared for Deerlodge National Forest / prepared by Peter Lesica. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 21, p. 41.
- Vegetation and flora of the Line Creek Plateau area, Carbon County, Montana / prepared by Peter Lesica and the Montana Natural Heritage Program; prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 26.
- Cronquist, A. 1947. A revision of the North American species of Erigeron, north of Mexico. Brittonia 6: 121302.
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- Nesom, G. L. 1989c. Infrageneric taxonomy of New World Erigeron (Compositae: Astereae). Phytologia 67: 6793.
- Nesom, G. L. 1989d. The separation of Trimorpha (Compositae: Astereae) from Erigeron. Phytologia 67: 6166.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 16, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Colorado Museum, Zoological specimens
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657472
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-18809
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13748571
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:203788-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 448141
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35852
- MoBot NameID: 2717984
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST3M160
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERDIT
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37802
- Guy L. Nesom "Erigeron". in Flora of North America Vol. 20 Page 3,9, 11, 12, 14, 17, 36, 204, 256, 257, 334. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 1,424.300 meters (4,672.900 feet), Standard Deviation = 657.680 based on 785 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]