Common Names in English:
Eastern False Rue Anemone, False Rue Anemone
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from stout woody rhizomes or tuberous
. Leaves basal and cauline, proximal
, distal leaves sessile or nearly so; cauline leaves alternate. Leaf blade
to cuneate-obovate, margins
entire to deeply 3-notched. Inflorescences terminal
, 2-10-flowered cymes or racemes
or flowers solitary, to 4 cm; bracts absent. Flowers bisexual
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, 5(-9), white, occasionally tinged pinkish, plane
, ovate to obovate
, 3.5-15 mm; petals absent; stamens 9-75; filaments
or narrowly triangular; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils [1-]2-10, simple
; ovules 2-6 per pistil; style present. Fruits follicles, aggregate, sessile or stipitate
to obovate, laterally compressed
, sides with a few prominent
veins and transverse
terminal, straight or curved
, 0.5-3 mm.
Seeds reddish brown, ovoid
, or minutely pubescent
Species 6: North America, Asia.
The delimitation of taxa within tribe Isopyreae Schrödinger has been open to considerable debate. North American taxonomists tend to retain the North American species in Isopyrum Linnaeus whereas taxonomists elsewhere recognize Enemion along with a number of other segregate genera [e.g. , Dichocarpum (Tamura and Kosuge) W. T. Wang and Fu D.-Z., Isopyrum in the strict sense, Leptopyrum Reichenbach, and Paraquilegia Drummond and Hutchinson] (J. R. Drummond and J. Hutchinson 1920; Fu D.-Z. 1990; M. Tamura 1984, 1993; M. Tamura and L. A. Lauener 1968).
Enemion has no petals and is regarded as the most primitive member in tribe Isopyreae (D.-Z. Fu 1990; M. Tamura 1984; M. Tamura and L. A. Lauener 1968). The other closely related genera form a transition series: Dichocarpum has peltate petals similar to the stamens; Isopyrum and Leptopyrum possess peltate petals with larger, tubular limbs and shorter claws ; and Paraquilegia has nonpeltate petals that are flat and ± concave or swollen near the base and nearly sessile.
While some authors have argued that too much emphasis has been placed on petals as characters for segregating genera (e.g., J. A. Calder and R. L. Taylor 1963), Enemion is a well-defined taxon , easily distinguished from other members of tribe Isopyreae. Final decisions involving the circumscription of Enemion await molecular study involving all members of subfamily Isopyroideae Tamura.
All species of Enemion in the flora , with the exception of E. biternatum, are localized endemics of western North America from British Columbia to California.
Species Enemion biternatum
Stems 10-40 cm, weakly rhizomatous
. Leaves: leaflets
irregularly 2-3-lobed, lobes
sometimes with 1-3 secondary lobes,
, glandular-apiculate; surfaces abaxially glabrous
, flowers solitary or loosely grouped in 2-4-flowered leafy
; peduncle not strongly clavate
. Flowers: sepals 5.5-13.5
× 3.5-8.5 mm; stamens 25-50; filaments
Follicles sessile, upright to widely divergent; body
to widely obovate
, 3.5-6.5 mm, gradually contracted
into style beak
; beak 1.7-3 mm. Seeds 2.1-2.7 mm, minutely pubescent
2 n = 14. [source]
Enemion biternatum has been mistaken for the superficially similar Thalictrum thalictroides because of its white flowers and compound Thalictrum -like leaves. Enemion biternatum is easily distinguished, however, by its few-seeded follicles and deeply lobed leaves with glandular-apiculate apices. Thalictrum thalictroides, on the other hand, is characterized by having achenes and somewhat crenate leaves with notched apices. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April.
Moist deciduous woods of valleys, flood plains , and ravine bottoms , occasionally in open pastures, often on limey soils; 25-1000 m (Ref. 100160).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Endymion nonscripta (L.) Garcke • Enemion biternatum Raf. • Isopyrum biternatum (Rafinesque) Torrey & A. Gray • Scilla nonscripta (L.) Hoffmgg. & Link
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Enemion
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. biternatum (Eastern False Rue Anemone) · E. hallii (Willamette False Rue Anemone) · E. occidentale (Western False Rue Anemone) · E. savilei (Queen Charlotte Island False Rue Anemone) · E. stipitatum (Siskiyou False Rue Anemone)
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- A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system. By George Don. London, Printed for C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1831-38. url p. 47.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1913. url p. 89.
- Atlantic journal, and friend of knowledge in eight numbers: containing about 160 original articles and tracts on natural and historical sciences, the description of about 150 new plants, and 100 new animals or fossils; many vocabularies of Philadelphia: [s.n.], 1832-1833. url .
- Bibliographical index to North American botany; or, Citations of authorities for all the recorded indigenous and naturalized species of the flora of North America, with a chronological arrangement of the synonymy. by Sereno Watson. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1878. url p. 15.
- Botany of the southern states. In two parts. Part I. Structural and physiological botany and vegetable products. Part II. Descriptions of southern plants. Arranged on the natural system. Preceded by a Linnæan and a dichotomous anal By John Darby. New York, A. S. Barnes, 1866. url p. 206.
- Bulletin from the laboratories of natural history of the State University of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa: The University, 1888-. url p. 99.
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- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 6 1901 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 508.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 23 2001 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 312.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 19.
- Flora of the Southern United States: containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida: arranged according to the natural system. New York, Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., [c1883] url .
- Flora of the southern United States, containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida; arranged according to the natural system by A.W. Chapman. New York, American Book Company url p. 9.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 156.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 156.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 221.
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- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 870.
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 508.
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- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 320.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley: a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River / by Conway MacMillan. Minneapolis: Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 1892. url p. 231.
- Torrey, J. & A. Gray A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system /by John Torrey and Asa Gray. 1 1838-1840 New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838-. url p. 29, p. 660, p. 660.
- Drummond, J. R. and J. Hutchinson. 1920. A revision of Isopyrum (Ranunculaceae) and its nearer allies. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1920: 145-169.
- Tamura, M. and L. A. Lauener. 1968. A revision of Isopyrum, Dichocarpum and their allies. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 28: 267-273.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645574
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18769
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13731348
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:711179-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18769
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDRAN0G010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ISBI2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37233
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Bruce A. Ford "Enemion". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]