Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Black Crowberry, Crakeberry, Crowberry, Curlew-Berry, Curlewberry
Common Names in Romanian:
usually woody, or herbs, sometimes lacking chlorophyll. Leaves spiral
, sometimes decussate, margin
. Inflorescence racemose; bracteoles paired
, basal. Flowers (4 or) 5-merous. Calyx imbricate. Corolla connate
, imbricate. Stamens 10, sometimes with spurs or awns
, dehiscing by pores
, pollen in tetrads
, rarely single. Ovary superior or inferior, placentation axile
, rarely parietal
, often many ovules per locule. Style ± as long as corolla, slender. Fruit a capsule or berry, rarely a drupe; calyx persistent.
About 125 genera and 4000 species: widely distributed in temperate and subarctic regions, also at high elevations in tropical regions ; 22 genera and 826 species (524 endemic) in China.
The Monotropoideae are here included in the Ericaceae; previously in FRPS (56: 157 216. 1990), they were treated as the Pyrolaceae. Chiogenes, recorded from China in FRPS (57(3) : 69 71. 1991), is here included in Gaultheria. Over the last half century, the Empetraceae have usually been separated from, but closely associated with, the Ericaceae. In their ecology, leaf morphology and insertion , rusts, embryology, stamen anatomy, etc. , they largely agree with that family . Molecular data place Empetrum and its relatives firmly within the Ericaceae, and in particular within the subfamily Ericoideae, in agreement with phytochemical and palynological data, and there they are best recognized as a separate tribe . There are distinctive features of the Empetreae that were responsible for their past familial status, e.g. , reduced perianth with separate members , low ovule number, enlarged stigmas, etc. However, these are likely to be derived features associated with wind pollination. See Kron et al. (Bot. Rev. 68: 335 423. 2002) and the recent treatment of the Ericaceae by Stevens et al. (in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 6: 145 194. 2004) .
Several genera and many species are ornamentals . Some fruits of Vaccinium in N China are sweet and edible, but of no particular value to humans. Some species of Chamaedaphne, Craibiodendron, Leucothoë, Lyonia, Pieris, and Rhododendron contain more or less toxic diterpenes, which are harmful to humans or domestic animals.
Two to several species: N temperate regions
, South America (Andes), S Atlantic Islands (Falkland Islands, Tristan da Cunha) ; one species in China.
Shrubs evergreen , small or creeping . Leaves densely verticillate , subverticillate, or decussate, sessile, margin entire; stipules absent. Inflorescences axillary on upper part of branchlets , 1 3-flowered; bracts (2 ) 4 or 5(or 6), scalelike. Flowers small, inconspicuous, unisexual (plants monoecious or dioecious) . Sepals 3 6, imbricate in bud, petaloid . Petals absent. Stamens 3( 6), exserted; anthers 2-celled, longitudinally dehiscent . Ovary superior, subglobose, apically depressed , 6 9-loculed; ovules l per locule; style 1, short or indistinct; stigma 6 9( 12) -lobed. Fruit globose or subglobose, drupaceous ; pericarp red, purple, or black when ripe , fleshy . Pyrenes 1 per locule, 1-seeded.
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May, June. • Flower Color: purple
Size: under 6" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,916 meters (0 to 9,567 feet).
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Ericanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Empetrum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 9 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. eamesii (Crowberry) · E. eamesii atropurpureum (Elliottia) · E. eamesii eamesii (Purple Crowberry) · E. eamesii subsp. atropurpureum (Purple Crowberry) · E. nigrum (Black Crowberry) · E. nigrum hermaphroditum (Black Crowberry) · E. nigrum nigrum (Black Crowberry) · E. nigrum 'Compass Harbor' (Black Crowberry) · E. nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum (Black Crowberry)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Institute of Dendrology PAS, Institute of Dendrology PAS, Flora of Sudety Mountains
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649245
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-23743
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5884651
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:324780-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 15127
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 23743
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 324780-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDEMP03020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: EMHE EMNIN
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 37199
- Mingyuan Fang, Ruizheng Fang, Mingyou He, Linzheng Hu, Hanbi Yang, Haining Qin, Tianlu Min, David F. Chamberlain, Peter Stevens, Gary D. Wallace & Arne Anderberg "Ericaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 242. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mingyuan Fang, Ruizheng Fang, Mingyou He, Linzheng Hu, Hanbi Yang, Haining Qin, Tianlu Min, David F. Chamberlain, Peter Stevens, Gary D. Wallace & Arne Anderberg "Empetrum". in Flora of China Vol. 14 Page 455. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 351.980 meters (1,154.790 feet), Standard Deviation = 317.820 based on 11,925 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]