The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Senecioneae are a tribe of closely related genera that can be recognized most readily by the nature of the pappus and the involucral bracts or phyllaries. The phyllaries are basically in one well developed, often partially or wholly connate series of equal length that closely envelope the head . Frequently there are a few, very much smaller and mostly randomly distributed, often necrotic-tipped bracts near the base of the main series. The pappus is of fine, soft, often pure white capillary hairs . Heads may be either discoid or radiate . -- Gerald Carr.
Annuals (sometimes persisting, usually monocarpic
], mostly 20-100 cm (taprooted; often glaucous). Stems usually 1, erect
(branched throughout or distally). Leaves mostly cauline; alternate; petiolate
or sessile (bases
) ; blades
pinnately nerved, mostly ovate
[lanceolate] (sometimes pinnately lobed, sometimes lyrate-pinnatifid), ultimate
entire or toothed
, sometimes villous
or ± arachnose. Heads discoid
, in cymiform or corymbiform
arrays. Calyculi 0. Involucres urceolate
, mostly 2-8+ mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, usually 8 or 13 in 1-2 series, erect (reflexed
in fruit), distinct
(margins interlocking and coherent early), mostly linear
, equal, margins scarious
(glabrous or villous, apices usually green or slightly darkened, seldom blackish). Receptacles flat to convex
or obscurely foveolate, epaleate. Ray florets 0. Disc florets 20-50[100+], all bisexual
or inner functionally staminate
; corollas usually pinkish, lavender, or purplish, rarely reddish [orange, white, yellow], tubes
shorter than to equaling funnelform
to cylindric throats, lobes
5, erect to spreading
, lance-ovate; style branches stigmatic
in 2 lines
, apices truncate or truncate-penicillate (appendages
essentially 0). Cypselae (stramineous
to brown) fusiform-prismatic, 5-ribbed, glabrous but for stout, blunt
; pappi fragile, of 80-100+, white, barbellulate
. x = 5.
Species 50-100: introduced ; chiefly Old World tropics, some weedy in New World tropics.
D. H. Nicolson (1980) pointed out that Emilia is taxonomically complicated with poorly defined, weedy species and an involved nomenclatural history. Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental ; it is not known to escape and persist in the flora . It keys here to E. fosbergii, from which it differs in having involucres 6-9 mm (lengths typically 1.5 times diameters). In cultivation, it has bright red to dark orange corollas. Nicolson provided drawings that illustrate the distinctions.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Asteroideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: African Flowering Plants Database , Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:62A0CFE4-7AAF-4B40-AD2A-44F191A80F48
Last scrutiny: 12-Aug-09
Members of the genus Emilia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. coccinea (Scarlet Tasselflower) · E. fosbergii (Cupids Shaving Brush) · E. sonchifolia (Flora's Paint Brush) · E. sonchifolia javanica var. javanica (Lilac Tasselflower) · E. sonchifolia var. javanica (Lilac Tasselflower) · E. sonchifolia var. sonchifolia (Lilac Tasselflower)
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- Compositae newsletter. Columbus, Ohio: Dept. of Botany, Ohio State University, 1975- url p. 115, p. 117, p. 118, p. 123, p. 124, p. 24, p. 25, p. 27, p. 33, p. 39, p. 41, p. 42, p. 43, p. 45, p. 94.
- Barkley, T. M. and A. Cronquist. 1978b. Emilia. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Ser. 2, part 10, pp. 147-150.
- Nicolson, D. H. 1980. A summary of cytological information on Emilia and the taxonomy of four Pacific taxa of Emilia (Asteraceae: Senecioneae). Syst. Bot. 5: 391-407.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 23, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8719416
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-19040
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13759318
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:203065-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2062470