Common Names in English:
Oleaster, Wild Olive
, deciduous or evergreen
; most parts with distinctive silvery or brownish peltate scales
, sometimes branches spine-tipped. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
; stipules absent; petiole
usually present, sometimes short; leaf blade
often leathery, simple
entire or subentire
, abaxially densely stellate-hairy or peltate-scaly, pinnately veined. Flowers solitary or in clusters
or short racemes
, or unisexual
dioecious) . Calyx in bisexual and female flowers tubular
, 2-6(-8) -lobed, male flowers of Hippophae of 2 membranous sepals. Petals absent. Stamens 4-8, free
to calyx tube, in male flowers 2 Ã— as many as the lobes
, in bisexual flowers as many as the lobes and alternate with them. Ovary superior but tightly enclosed in differentiated basal part of calyx and apparently inferior, 1-loculed; style elongate
, stigma lateral
. Ovule 1, basal, anatropous
. Fruit drupelike, indehiscent, enclosed in base
of calyx tube and containing a single seed.
Three genera and ca. 90 species: N temperate and tropical regions ; two genera and 74 species (59 endemic) in China.
The fruits of many members of this family are edible, and some species of both Elaeagnus and Hippophae are widely utilized and sometimes cultivated as fruit trees. They are a particularly good source of Vitamin C. Several species are also grown as ornamental garden shrubs. The roots are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen making it possible for plants to grow well on very poor soils. For this reason, some species, most notably Elaeagnus angustifolia, have been used for land reclamation.
, sometimes climbing
, or small trees
, deciduous or evergreen
, sometimes spiny
. Leaves alternate, petiolate
usually entire. Flowers bisexual
, clustered on short axillary
, sometimes solitary. Calyx tubular
, 4-lobed, constricted
above ovary and breaking at constriction as fruit develops; lobes
, deciduous, white or yellow inside. Stamens 4, inserted
of calyx tube, alternate with lobes. Style linear
, not exserted. Drupe globose
, rarely longitudinally winged
(E. mollis) ; stone
usually 8-ribbed, with a large straight embryo.
About 90 species: Asia, S Europe, North America; 67 species (55 endemic) in China.
Many taxa are separated only by quantitative characters, and better information on population variation is likely to lead to a significant reduction in the number of species recognized. Indeed, recent studies (Du, Fl. Yunnan. 12: 749-776. 2006) suggest that some species of Elaeagnus should be combined.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 121 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Elaeagnus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. angustifolia (Oleaster) · E. angustifolia 'Quicksilver' (Silver Russian Olive) · E. commutata (American Silverberry) · E. latifolia (Wild Olive) · E. multiflora (Cherry Silver-Berry) · E. orientalis (Oriental Olive) · E. orientalis 'King Red' (Silver Russian Olive) · E. philippinensis (Lingaro) · E. pungens (Pungent Elaeagnus) · E. pungens 'Fruitlandii' (Fruitland Silverberry) · E. pungens 'Glen St. Mary' (Golden Elaeagnus) · E. pungens 'Maculata' (Golden Elaeagnus) · E. rhamnoides (Common Seabuckthorn) · E. umbellata (Autumn Elaeangus) · E. umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. (Autumn Olive) · E. umbellata var. parvifolia (Autumn Olive) · E. umbellatus (Oleaster) · E. x ebbingei 'Eleador' (Ebbinges Silverberry) · E. x ebbingei 'Gilt Edge' (Ebbinges Silverberry) · E. x ebbingei 'Limelight' (Ebbinges Silverberry)
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- Chang Che-yung. 1983. Elaeagnaceae. In: Fang Wen-pei & Chang Che-yung, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(2): 1-66.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 01, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (May 04, 2008)
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1825714
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:323739-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 14922
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 165436-3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1262987
- Haining Qin & Michael G. Gilbert "Elaeagnaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 251. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Elaeagnus". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 251. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]