Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Hu Tui Zi
Common Names in English:
Pungent Elaeagnus, Golden Elaeagnus, Silverberry, Silverthorn, Thorny Elaeagnus, Thorny Olive
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
, deciduous or evergreen
; most parts with distinctive silvery or brownish peltate scales
, sometimes branches spine-tipped. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
; stipules absent; petiole
usually present, sometimes short; leaf blade
often leathery, simple
entire or subentire
, abaxially densely stellate-hairy or peltate-scaly, pinnately veined. Flowers solitary or in clusters
or short racemes
, or unisexual
dioecious) . Calyx in bisexual and female flowers tubular
, 2-6(-8) -lobed, male flowers of Hippophae of 2 membranous sepals. Petals absent. Stamens 4-8, free
to calyx tube, in male flowers 2 Ã— as many as the lobes
, in bisexual flowers as many as the lobes and alternate with them. Ovary superior but tightly enclosed in differentiated basal part of calyx and apparently inferior, 1-loculed; style elongate
, stigma lateral
. Ovule 1, basal, anatropous
. Fruit drupelike, indehiscent, enclosed in base
of calyx tube and containing a single seed.
Three genera and ca. 90 species: N temperate and tropical regions ; two genera and 74 species (59 endemic) in China.
The fruits of many members of this family are edible, and some species of both Elaeagnus and Hippophae are widely utilized and sometimes cultivated as fruit trees. They are a particularly good source of Vitamin C. Several species are also grown as ornamental garden shrubs. The roots are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen making it possible for plants to grow well on very poor soils. For this reason, some species, most notably Elaeagnus angustifolia, have been used for land reclamation.
, sometimes climbing
, or small trees
, deciduous or evergreen
, sometimes spiny
. Leaves alternate, petiolate
usually entire. Flowers bisexual
, clustered on short axillary
, sometimes solitary. Calyx tubular
, 4-lobed, constricted
above ovary and breaking at constriction as fruit develops; lobes
, deciduous, white or yellow inside. Stamens 4, inserted
of calyx tube, alternate with lobes. Style linear
, not exserted. Drupe globose
, rarely longitudinally winged
(E. mollis) ; stone
usually 8-ribbed, with a large straight embryo.
About 90 species: Asia, S Europe, North America; 67 species (55 endemic) in China.
Many taxa are separated only by quantitative characters, and better information on population variation is likely to lead to a significant reduction in the number of species recognized. Indeed, recent studies (Du, Fl. Yunnan. 12: 749-776. 2006) suggest that some species of Elaeagnus should be combined.
Species Elaeagnus pungens
Shrubs , evergreen , 3-4 m tall, densely branched. Spines frequent; young branches densely brown scaly . Petiole robust , 5-15 mm, rugose , brown scaly; leaf blade oblong to narrowly so, 5-10 × 1.8-3.5 cm, leathery, abaxially with dense whitish and usually also brown scales , adaxially glabrous and glossy, lateral veins 7-9 per side of midrib , base rounded , margin obsoletely toothed with prominently undulate margins, apex obtuse to bluntly acute. Flowers few, clustered in axils. Pedicel 5-8 mm, brown scaly. Calyx tube funnelform , rather broad, 6-7 mm, abruptly narrowed at base; lobes ovate , ca. 1/2 as long as tube, apex rounded. Drupe oblong, 1.2-1.5 cm, brown scaly. Fl. Sep-Dec, fr. Apr-Jun. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 4-6' tall.
Open slopes , roadsides or thickets, often near the sea; below 1000 m. [source]
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 141 meters (464 feet).
Culture: Space 8-10' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Thunb. Publication : Syst. Veg., ed. 14 (J. A. Murray). 164 1784 [May-Jun 1784]
Members of the genus Elaeagnus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
E. angustifolia (Oleaster) · E. angustifolia 'Quicksilver' (Silver Russian Olive) · E. commutata (American Silverberry) · E. latifolia (Wild Olive) · E. multiflora (Cherry Silver-Berry) · E. orientalis (Oriental Olive) · E. orientalis 'King Red' (Silver Russian Olive) · E. philippinensis (Lingaro) · E. pungens (Pungent Elaeagnus) · E. pungens 'Fruitlandii' (Fruitland Silverberry) · E. pungens 'Glen St. Mary' (Golden Elaeagnus) · E. pungens 'Maculata' (Golden Elaeagnus) · E. rhamnoides (Common Seabuckthorn) · E. umbellata (Autumn Elaeangus) · E. umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle) Schneid. (Autumn Olive) · E. umbellata var. parvifolia (Autumn Olive) · E. umbellatus (Oleaster) · E. x ebbingei 'Eleador' (Ebbinges Silverberry) · E. x ebbingei 'Gilt Edge' (Ebbinges Silverberry) · E. x ebbingei 'Limelight' (Ebbinges Silverberry)
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- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 326, p. 326.
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- Chang Che-yung. 1983. Elaeagnaceae. In: Fang Wen-pei & Chang Che-yung, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(2): 1-66.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2666817
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-502223
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:323787-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 14928
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 502223
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 927283-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDELG01050
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ELPU2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6915
- Haining Qin & Michael G. Gilbert "Elaeagnaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 251. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Elaeagnus". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 251. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 281.750 based on 35 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]