Common Names in English:
Crested Shield Fern, Crested Buckler Fern, Crested Wood Fern, Crested Woodfern
or on rock, occasionally hemiepiphytic
or epiphytic. Stems creeping
, rarely arborescent
, sometimes climbing
, branched or unbranched, dictyostelic, bearing scales
. Leaves circinate
in bud, monomorphic
usually not articulate
to stem, scales usually persistent
, in cross
with 2--many roundish bundles, or bundles 2 and lunate
to commonly 1--5-pinnate or more divided
, leaf buds
absent or present. Veins pinnate or parallel in ultimate
segments, simple or forked
or anastomosing, areoles sometimes with included
free veinlets. Indument
on blade commonly of glands
, and/or scales, especially on rachis and costae abaxially. Sori borne abaxially on veins or at vein
(but usually not marginal
), or sporangia acrostichoid
and covering abaxial
surface, if in discrete sori then variously shaped (round
, or elongate
) ; receptacle not or only slightly elevated
, with or without indusium, indusium variously linear
, or reniform
, sometimes hoodlike, cuplike, or round. Sporangia with stalk
of 2--3 rows
; annulus vertical
by stalk. Spores all of 1 kind, usually not green (except Matteuccia, Onoclea ), oblong or reniform in outline, monolete, variously ornamented (often broadly winged
), 64 per sporangium (32 in apogamous spp.
) . Gametophytes green, aboveground, cordate, glabrous
or often bearing glands or hairs; archegonia and antheridia borne on lower surface, antheridia 3-celled.
Genera ca. 60, species perhaps exceeding 3000 (18 genera, 79 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
The family Dryopteridaceae has been variously circumscribed; it is here delimited in a manner similar to that of R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon (1982) but with the inclusion of Nephrolepis . In many works, the family has gone under the illegitimate name Aspidiaceae. Some authorities define Dryopteridaceae more narrowly, to exclude Athyrium, Deparia, Diplazium, Cystopteris, and Gymnocarpium (Athyriaceae or Woodsiaceae), Woodsia (Woodsiaceae), Lomariopsis (Lomariopsidaceae), Nephrolepis (Nephrolepidaceae or Davalliaceae), Onoclea and Matteuccia (Onocleaceae), and Ctenitis and Tectaria (Tectariaceae) . Characteristics holding Dryopteridaceae (as circumscribed here) together include the bilateral , monolete spores, often broadly winged perispore, absence of needlelike hairs, scaly stem and petiole bases, abaxial (nonmarginal) sori, base chromosome number of 40 or 41 (also 38 and 39 in Woodsia, 37 in Onoclea, 42 in Cystopteris ), and usually indusiate sori. Loss of indusium, dimorphism , areolate venation , and reduced blade dissection have occurred repeatedly along many evolutionary lines in Dryopteridaceae, and in general these characteristics are often not very useful in delimiting genera or assessing intergeneric relationships .
In some genera, especially Phanerophlebia and Polystichum, the blade bears very narrow scales (sometimes called microscales) that resemble uniseriate hairs. These scales may be only one or two cells wide. Every intergradation exists between these filiform microscales and more typical, wider scales, and the two types are the same color, generally tan to brownish. Microscales are probably not homologous with true hairs, which may be either unicellular or multicellular , uncolored or sometimes reddish (as in Tectaria and Ctenitis ), glandular (as in Woodsia ) or not. Hairs in Dryopteridaceae, if present at all, are generally readily distinguishable from the needlelike, transparent ones found in Thelypteridaceae.
, rarely on rock. Stems short-creeping to erect
, stolons absent. Leaves monomorphic
, green through winter or dying back in winter. Petiole
swollen or not; vascular bundles
more than 3, arranged in an arc, ± round
. Blade deltate-ovate to lanceolate, 1--3-pinnate-pinnatifid, gradually reduced distally to pinnatifid
apex, herbaceous to somewhat leathery. Pinnae not articulate
to rachis, segment margins
, or serrate, spinulose
or not; proximal
pinnae reduced (several pairs), same size as or enlarged relative to more distal pinnae, sessile to petiolulate
or often inequilateral
on basiscopic side longer
than those on acroscopic
side; costae adaxially grooved
continuous from rachis to costae to costules
abaxially, also sometimes with glands
, blades ± glabrous
adaxially. Veins free
. Sori in 1 row
between margin and midrib
, round; indusia round-reniform, attached at narrow sinus
. Spores brownish, coarsely rugose
or with folded wings
Species ca. 250: mostly in temperate Asia.
The relationships of the North American species are reasonably well understood, but species identifications are complicated by the frequent presence of hybrids in field populations. Sterile hybrids can be distinguished from fertile species by their misshapen spores and intermediate morphology. They are not included in the key , but they may be identified as to parentage by combinations of characters in the key (e.g. , marginal sori for Dryopteris marginalis, narrow blades for D . cristata) . Relationships are shown in the accompanying reticulogram.
Species Dryopteris cristata
, 35--70 × 8--12 cm; fertile
leaves dying back
in winter; sterile
leaves several, small, green through winter, forming
of leaf, scaly
, tan. Blade
green, narrowly lanceolate
or with parallel sides, pinnate-pinnatifid, not glandular
of fertile leaves twisted out of plane
of blade and perpendicular
to it, deltate; basal pinnae deltate, somewhat reduced, basal pinnules
, basal basiscopic pinnule and basal
pinnule equal; pinnule margins distantly serrate, with
teeth. Sori midway between midvein
Indusia lacking glands
. 2 n = 164. [source]
Dryopteris cristata is believed to be an allotetraploid derived from D. ludoviciana and an unknown diploid called " D. semicristata " by W. H. Wagner Jr. (1971). This ancestral taxon could have been either North American or Eurasian and may have become extinct during the last glaciation (T. J. Carlson and W. H. Wagner Jr. 1982). Dryopteris cristata hybridizes with five species; these hybrids can be identified by the narrow blades and deltate proximal pinnae. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: n/a
Size: 24-36" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,104 meters (0 to 3,622 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Dryopteris
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 100 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
D. acutidens (Pointed Woodfern) · D. affinis (Golden Male Fern) · D. affinis cambrensis (Male Fern) · D. affinis pseudodisjuncta (Golden-Scale Male Fern) · D. affinis var. azorica (Golden-Scale Male Fern) · D. affinis 'Crispa Congesta' (Male Fern) · D. affinis 'Crispa Gracilis' (Male Fern) · D. affinis 'Cristata' (Golden Male Fern) · D. affinis 'Cristata The King' (Crested Male Fern) · D. affinis 'Stablerii' (Crisped Golden-Scaled Male Fern) · D. algonquinensis (Algonquin Woodfern) · D. arguta (Coastal Wood Fern) · D. atrata (Shaggy Shield Fern) · D. australis (Dixie Wood Fern) · D. benedictii (Benedict's Woodfern) · D. bissetiana (Beaded Wood Fern) · D. boottii (Boott's Woodfern) · D. burgessii (Burgess' Woodfern) · D. campyloptera (Mountain Woodfern) · D. carthusiana (Spinulose Shield Fern) · D. celsa (Log Fern) · D. championii (Champion's Wood Fern) · D. cinnamomea (Cinnamon Woodfern) · D. clintoniana (Broad Swamp Fern) · D. crassirhizoma (Thick-Stemmed Wood Fern) · D. crinalis (Serpent Woodfern) · D. cristata (Crested Shield Fern) · D. cristata × intermedia (Crested Buckler Fern) · D. cristata × marginalis (Crested Buckler Fern) · D. cristata × spinulosa (Crested Buckler Fern) · D. cycadina (Shaggy Shield Fern) · D. dilatata campyloptera (Mountain Wood Fern) · D. dilatata var. americana (Mountain Wood Fern) · D. dilatata 'Cristata' (Crested Broad Buckler Fern) · D. dilatata 'Jimmy Dyce' (Broad Buckler Fern) · D. dilatata 'Lepidota Cristata' (Broad Buckler Fern) · D. dilatata 'Recurvata' (Broad Buckler Fern) · D. dowellii (Dowell's Woodfern) · D. erythrosora (Autumn Fern) · D. erythrosora 'Brilliance' (Autumn Fern) · D. expansa (Alpine Buckler Fern) · D. felix-mas 'Robusta' (Male Fern) · D. felix-mas 'Undulata Robusta' (Robust Male Fern) · D. filix-mas (Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Barnesii' (Barnesii Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Crispa Cristata' (Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Cristata' (Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Digitata' (Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Gracilis' (Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Linearis' (Slender Crested Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Linearis Polydactyla' (Slender Crested Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Parsley' (Male Fern) · D. filix-mas 'Undulata Robusta' (Robust Male Fern) · D. fragrans (Fragrant Cliff Wood-Fern) · D. fragrans var. fragrans (Fragrant Woodfern) · D. fragrans var. remotiuscula (Fragrant Fern) · D. fuscoatra (Crowned Woodfern) · D. glabra (Kilaw) · D. goldiana (Giant Wood Fern) · D. goldieana celsa (Goldie´s Wood Fern) · D. hawaiiensis (Hawai'i Woodfern) · D. hondoensis (Hondo Fern) · D. intermedia (Evergreen Wood Fern) · D. lacera (Lacerate Wood-Fern) · D. leedsii (Leeds' Woodfern) · D. ludoviciana (Florida Shield Fern) · D. marginalis (Evergreen Wood Fern) · D. neowherryi (Woodfern) · D. pacifica (Asian Pacific Beaded Wood Fern) · D. parvula (Little Woodfern) · D. pittsfordensis (Pittsford's Woodfern) · D. podosora (Kauaikinana Wood Fern) · D. pseudo-filix-mas (Mexican Male Fern) · D. pseudo filix-mas (Mexican Male Fern) · D. remota (Remote Wood Fern) · D. rossii (Ross' Wood Fern) · D. sandwicensis (Hawaii Woodfern) · D. scottii (Scotts Wood Fern) · D. separabilis (Woodfern) · D. sieboldii (Siebolds Wood Fern) · D. slossoniae (Slosson's Woodfern) · D. subbipinnata (Ainahou Valley Woodfern) · D. tenebrosa (Na Pali-Kona Woodfern) · D. tokyoensis (Tokyo Wood Phone) · D. triploidea (Triploid Woodfern) · D. uliginosa (Woodfern) · D. unidentata (One-Tooth Woodfern) · D. uniformis (Uniform Wood Fern) · D. wallichiana (Alpine Woodfern) · D. × algonquinensis (Algonquin Woodfern) · D. × benedictii (Benedict's Woodfern) · D. x boottii (Boott's Woodfern) · D. × burgessii (Burgess' Woodfern) · D. x complexa 'Robust' (Robust Male Fern) · D. × dowellii (Dowell's Woodfern) · D. x triploidea (Triploid Woodfern) · D. algonquinensis (Algonquin Woodfern) · D. benedictii (Benedict's Woodfern) · D. burgessii (Burgess' Woodfern) · D. dowellii (Dowell's Woodfern)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2644686
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-17531
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4462689
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17093920-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 403304
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 17531
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17093920
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPDRY0A090
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 17
- Alan R. Smith "Dryopteridaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James D. Montgomery, Warren H. Wagner Jr. "Dryopteris". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 116.220 meters (381.299 feet), Standard Deviation = 159.720 based on 1,171 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]