Common Names in English:
Plants small to large, often in dense tufts. Stems erect
or dichotomously to irregularly branched, usually with central strand, often densely radiculose
occasionally deciduous. Leaves in several rows
around the stem, erect or secund
, often falcate-secund, sometimes crispate
, short- to long-lanceolate, whole leaves or their tips sometimes deciduous; costa single, usually strong
to excurrent, sometimes ending in a short to long hyaline
or lamellose on abaxial
surface, rhizoids occasionally on adaxial
or abaxial surface near leaf base
smooth or sometimes distal cells mammillose
on one or both sides, papillae rarely forked
, or toothed
cell ends, pitted
or nonpitted; proximal
, often differentiated in alar
region, sometimes undifferentiated. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent or occasionally present as brood leaves, microphyllous
branches, borne in axils of distal leaves or as rhizoidal tubers. Sexual condition autoicous
, dioicous or pseudomonoicous. Seta solitary or several per perichaetium
, elongate, usually straight, sometimes flexuose or cygneous
. Capsule exserted, erect, inclined
, or sometimes curved
, cylindrical or ovoid
, smooth, ridged, furrowed
or irregularly wrinkled, sometimes strumose
; stomata present or absent, superficial; annulus present or absent, often compound
, deciduous or persistent
; operculum conic or obliquely rostrate
from a conic base; peristome single, usually of 16 lanceolate teeth, deeply divided
into 2 or rarely 3 divisions, usually vertically striolate
or pitted-striolate proximally, papillose distally. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, naked, sometimes fringed
at base, usually covering most of capsule, fugacious
. Spores mostly spheric, smooth to papillose.
Genera 50-52, species ca. 900 (17 genera, 90 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
Distinctive characters of this large acrocarpous family include the erect, often tomentose stems; mostly narrow, lanceolate, occasionally falcate or falcate-secund leaves, with a single, narrow to broad costa, with or without rhizoids at the base, sometimes ending in a hyaline, occasionally toothed apex, costa in cross section with or without stereid bands , leaf cells usually smooth, sometimes mammillose, or rarely with a single papilla on one or both sides, papillae rarely forked, asexual propagation by specialized deciduous branches, deciduous leaves or leaf apices, rarely rhizoidal tubers; sporophytes usually solitary or rarely clustered, setae mostly elongate, straight or rarely flexuose or cygneous, capsule cylindric to ovoid, erect to horizontal, smooth or ribbed , sometimes strumose, operculum usually obliquely rostrate, peristome single, with 16 teeth often divided 1/2 way to the base, usually striolate or pitted-striolate proximally, papillose distally.
Plants in loose
to dense tufts, yellowish green to dark green, dull
or shiny. Stems (0.5-) 2-12(-18) cm, erect
, densely tomentose
with white or reddish brown, smooth
rhizoids, these sometimes nearly absent, rhizoids arising at bases
of branches (macronemata) and sometimes in rows
along stems (micronemata). Leaves usually lanceolate, rarely ovate
, rarely flat, distal subula keeled
, erect-appressed, erect-patent or spreading
, straight, weakly curled, crispate
when dry, generally falcate-secund, less often straight, undulate
or smooth; apices acute to obtuse
sometimes deciduous, apparently a means of asexual reproduction; margins
, entire to serrate in distal part, entire proximally; laminae
1- or 2-stratose at margins or sometimes near costa; laminal
smooth; costa single, ending before apex to excurrent, smooth or toothed
surface, sometimes with 2-4 serrated
abaxially, 1-2 rows of guide cells, two well-developed stereid
above and below, sometimes slightly differentiated or absent, extending to apex, or ending before the apex, adaxial
and (or) abaxial epidermal layers of cells differentiated or undifferentiated, sometimes only a few cells in both layers enlarged; laminal cell walls weakly to strongly bulging, or bulges absent; leaf cells pitted
or nonpitted, smooth or sometimes abaxially, rarely adaxially, mammillose
, papillose or toothed by projecting
cell ends, walls often thickened; distal and median
laminal cells short or long, quadrate
, rectangular or irregularly angled
, proximal cells rectangular to linear
, alar cells
, 1- or 2-stratose, rarely more, generally orange to brown, rarely poorly differentiated. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent or as clusters
of 1-6, deciduous, terete
, flagelliform branchlets
, borne in axils of distal leaves. Sexual condition dioicous or pseudomonoicous; male plants
as large as female plants or dwarfed and epiphytic on stem rhizoids of female plants; perigonial leaves ovate, concave, short-acuminate; perichaetial leaves usually convolute-sheathing, abruptly subulate
or rarely interior leaves gradually acuminate. Seta solitary or up to 6 per perichaetium
, smooth, elongate
, erect, twisted when dry, yellow, brown or reddish. Capsule erect or inclined
, straight or arcuate
, smooth, striate
when dry, annulus of 1-3 rows of usually large, deciduous or persistent
cells, sometimes indistinctly differentiated; operculum long-rostrate, straight or arcuate; peristome single, 16 teeth, split 1/3-1/2 their length
into 2, rarely 3, divisions, vertically pitted-striolate proximally, papillose above, reddish brown. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, naked, covering most of capsule, fugacious
. Spores 12-30 µm, spherical
, finely papillose.
Species ca. 140: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia.
Species Dicranum scoparium
Plants in loose
to dense tufts, light to dark green, glossy
to sometimes dull
. Stems 2-10 cm, tomentose
with white to
brown rhizoids. Leaves very variable, usually falcate-secund,
rarely straight and erect
, slightly contorted and crisped
sometimes slightly rugose
, (4-) 5-8.5(-15) × 0.8-1.8
above, lanceolate, apex acute to somewhat
strongly serrate in the distal 1/3 or rarely slightly
1-stratose; costa percurrent
, excurrent, or ending
before apex, 1/10-1/5 the width of
the leaves at base
, usually with
above on abaxial
surface, with a row
, two thin stereid
epidermal layer of cells not
differentiated, the abaxial layer interrupted
by several enlarged
cells that form part of the abaxial ridge, not extending to the apices;
between lamina cells not bulging; leaf cells smooth
cells 2-stratose, well- differentiated, sometimes extending to costa;
cells linear-rectangular, pitted
, (25-) 47-100(-132)
× (5-) 7-12(-13) µm; distal laminal cells shorter, broad,
sinuose, pitted, (11-) 27-43(-53) × (5-) 8-12(-20) µm.
Sexual condition pseudomonoicous or dioicous; dwarf
on rhizoids of female plants
or male plants as large as females;
interior perichaetial leaves abruptly long-acuminate, convolute-sheathing.
Seta 2-4 cm, solitary, rarely two per perichaetium
brown to reddish brown. Capsule 2.5-4 mm, arcuate
to horizontal, smooth to striate
when dry, yellowish brown to reddish
brown; operculum 2-3.5 mm.
Spores 14-24 µm. Capsules
Dicranum scoparium is undoubtedly the most polymorphic species of the genus in North America. It is commonly called the broom moss because the leaves are œswept or turned in the same direction . However, the habit of the leaves varies from strongly falcate-secund, i.e. , the swept state, to straight and erect, especially prevalent in northern plants. The leaf shape varies from the typical lanceolate and long-acuminate to the odd ovate-lanceolate and short-acuminate. The leaves are typically smooth, in sharp contrast to the strongly undulate leaves of D. polysetum, but on rare occasion they can be somewhat undulate-rugose. The leaf margins are usually distinctly toothed in the distal 1/3 but at times plants in some populations have extremely weak serrations , appearing nearly entire. The costae vary in extent from subpercurrent to shortly excurrent. The abaxial surface of the costae have two to four toothed ridges, compared to the two in D. polysetum, but in some forms they are almost nonexistent. The distal areolation of the leaves seems to remain constant in the myriad forms of D. scoparium, the cells being short-sinuose with pitted walls, generally containing conspicuous oil-drops. [source]
Plants growing in arctic North America and those in extremely wet habitats , such as bogs , often have a different superficial appearance . The leaves are straight, erect, ovate-lanceolate, short-acuminate with weak serrations on the margins, and the abaxial ridges on the costae are poorly developed. Sometimes the plants have distal shoots with abnormal appearing leaves that are shorter and broader than those below. Some of these collections have been referred to Dicranum latifolium, which I consider to be a synonym of D. scoparium. Further field and laboratory studies are required to clarify the taxonomic status of those plants. In the sterile state, large-leaved plants of D. scoparium can be confused with D. majus. The latter is immediately distinguished by a double row of guide cells, instead of the single row in the former, thicker stereid bands, distal cells that are narrower and more elongate and costae that have small teeth or serrulations distally on the abaxial surface instead of the characteristic 2-4 toothed ridges of D. scoparium. When fruiting, the solitary, rarely paired , sporophytes of D. scoparium distinguish it from D. majus, which has multiple sporophytes, 2-5 per perichaetium. [source]
Soil, humus , humus over rock, decaying stumps and logs , tree bases in dry to mesic woodlands; sometimes bogs , fens and swamps ; 50-2900 m.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,701 meters (0 to 15,423 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Class: Bryopsida () - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Dicranoloma otii Sakurai • Dicranum angustifolium Kindberg in Macoun • Dicranum canadense Kindberg in Macoun • Dicranum condensatum Hedwig • Dicranum consobrinum Renauld and Cardot • Dicranum dillenii Taylor • Dicranum kindbergii Paris • Dicranum latifolium J. J. Amann • Dicranum mexicanum W. P. Schimper in Bescherelle • Dicranum otii (Sakurai) Sakurai • Dicranum pallidum Bruch and W. P. Schimper Ex C. Mï¿½ller • Dicranum rigidifolium Sakurai • Dicranum scopariiforme Kindberg
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Dicranum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 32 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
D. acutifolium (Acuteleaf Dicranum Moss) · D. angustum (Dicranum Moss) · D. bergeri (Undulate Dicranum Moss) · D. bonjeanii (Bonjean's Dicranum Moss) · D. brevifolium (Shortleaf Dicranum Moss) · D. condensatum (Condensed Dicranum Moss) · D. elongatum (Elongate Dicranum Moss) · D. flagellare (Dicranum Moss) · D. flavescens (Dicranum Moss) · D. fragilifolium (Fragile Leaf Dicranum Moss) · D. fulvum (Dicranum Moss) · D. fuscescens (Dicranum Moss) · D. fuscescens var. fuscescens (Dicranum Moss) · D. groenlandicum (Greenland Dicranum Moss) · D. howellii (Howell's Dicranum Moss) · D. latifolium (Wideleaf Dicranum Moss) · D. leioneuron (Dicranum Moss) · D. majus (Dicranum Moss) · D. montanum (Montane Dicranum Moss) · D. muehlenbeckii (Muehlenbeck's Dicranum Moss) · D. ontariense (Ontario Dicranum Moss) · D. orthophyllum (Dicranum Moss) · D. pallidisetum (Dicranum Moss) · D. platycaulon (Spotted Jewfish) · D. plurisetum (Poey's Grouper) · D. polysetum (Dicranum Moss) · D. rhabdocarpum (Dicranum Moss) · D. scoparium (Dicranum Moss) · D. spadiceum (Dicranum Moss) · D. spurium (Dicranum Moss) · D. tauricum (Dicranum Moss) · D. viride (Dicranum Moss)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Australian Antarctic Division Herbarium
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Wroclaw: Flora of Slowinski National Park, Poland
- Finnish Museum of Natural History: Hatikka Observation Data Gateway
- GBIF-Spain: BDBCV BioBlitz in Penyagolosa (Castellón, Spain)
- GBIF-Spain: Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid: MA-Musci
- GBIF-Sweden: Herbarium of Oskarshamn (OHN)
- GBIF-Sweden: Mosses (S)
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (AMNH)
- Icelandic Institute of Natural History: Herbarium (ICEL)
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS: National System of Proetcted Areas
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences: Spring bryophyte flora of Salpausselka (Ulvinen 1955 & Juutinen 2006)
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Bryophyte herbarium, Bergen (BG)
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo: Bryophyte herbarium, Oslo (O)
- NLBIF: Limnodata
- The New York Botanical Garden: American Bryophyte Catalog
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain from the British Bryological Society held by BRC
- UK National Biodiversity Network: British Bryological Society - Bryophyte data for Great Britain held by BRC for compilation
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Dorset Environmental Records Centre - Bryophyte Survey of the Poole Basin Mires - NBN South West Pilot Project Case Studies
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: MEXU/Colección de Briofitas
- University Museums of Norway (MUSIT)
- Utah State University: USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3872793
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35124149
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494459
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 16763
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: DISC71
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 34874
- Robert R. Ireland Jr. "Dicranaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 12, 39, 331, 358, 360, 426, 427, 433, 440, 443, 444, 548, 564. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Robert R. Ireland Jr. "Dicranum". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 9, 10, 26, 32, 33, 38, 359, 360, 362, 386, 397, 398, 405, 406, 411, 420,. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 282.760 meters (927.690 feet), Standard Deviation = 522.980 based on 50,050 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]