Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Squirrel Corn, Squirrel-Corn, Turkey Corn, Turkey-Corn
Common Names in French:
Dicentre Du Canada
Herbs or subshrubs
, or small trees
, biennial, or perennial
, usually from taproots
, sometimes from rhizomes; sap
clear, white, or colored
, often sticky. Stems leafy or naked, erect
, or decumbent
or branching. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate to opposite or whorled
, simple, without stipules, petiolate
or sessile; blade
unlobed or with 1-3 odd-pinnate, subpalmate, or palmate orders
. Inflorescences axillary
, unifloral or else multifloral and cymiform, racemose, umbelliform, corybiform, or paniculate
; bracts usually present. Flowers radially symmetric
or sessile; receptacle sometimes expanded and forming cup
calyx (only in Eschscholzia, Meconella, and Platystemon ) ; perianth and androecium sometimes perigynous; sepals caducous
, 2 or 3, distinct
, usually obovate
; petals distinct, usually obovate, mostly 2 times number of sepals, sometimes more or absent; stamens many or 4-15 (only in Meconella and Canbya ) ; anthers
2-locular; pistil 1, 2-18[-22]-carpellate; ovary 1-2-locular or incompletely to completely multilocular by placental
intrusion; placentas 2 or more, parietal
; style 1 or absent; stigmas or stigma lobes 2-many. Fruits capsular
, dehiscence valvate
, or transverse
, or carpels dissociating and breaking transversely into 1-seeded segments (only in Platystemon ) . Seeds usually many, small, sometimes arillate
Genera 25-30 (17 genera, 63 species in the flora ) : worldwide, mainly Northern Hemisphere.
According to W. R. Ernst (1962b), Papaveraceae "may be divided conveniently into four subfamilies." His scheme is followed here, but with the subfamilies taken up in alphabetic order; they seem to be natural groups, but their phylogenetic interrelationships are not yet clear. Similarly, the evolutionary relationships within the subfamilies remain ambiguous, and the genera in each are listed alphabetically. Subfamily Chelidonioideae Ernst includes genera 1-5; subf. Eschscholzioideae Ernst, genera 6-7; subf. Papavaroideae Ernst, genera 8-14; and subf. Platostamenoideae Ernst, genera 15-17.
, from taproots
, bulblets, tubers, or rhizomes. Stems when present erect
or branching, hollow at maturity. Leaves basal or cauline, compound
with 2-4 orders
, or serrate; surfaces glabrous
, sometimes glaucous. Inflorescences axillary
, leaf-opposed, or terminal
, unifloral or else multifloral and thyrsoid
, racemose, or corymbose
. Flowers bilaterally symmetric
about each of 2 perpendicular planes
; sepals caducous
; corolla cordate to oblong
in outline; petals coherent or connate
only basally, not spongy
; outer petals both swollen or spurred
basally, usually keeled
apically; inner petals with blade fiddle-, spoon-, or arrowhead-shaped, claw
linear-oblong to oblanceolate
; stamens with nectariferous
borne on median
in each bundle and sometimes forming spur or loop that projects into swollen base
outer petal; ovary broadly ovoid
to narrowly cylindric
; stigma persistent
, with 2 lobes or apical horns, sometimes also with 2 lateral
papillae. Capsules indehiscent or dehiscent
and 2-valved. Seeds few-many, elaiosome usually present. x
Species 20: temperate North America and eastern Asia.
About 35 isoquinoline alkaloids have been isolated from Fumariaceae, and such compounds are present in the tissues of all species. Some of these alkaloids have been used medicinally, mostly in the past. The drug complex corydalis, which contains several alkaloids extracted from the bulblets of Dicentra canadensis and D. cucullaria, has been used as a healing agent in chronic skin diseases, as a tonic and diuretic, and in the treatment of syphilis. The alkaloid bulbocapnine, obtained from all parts of D. canadensis, has been used in the treatment of Ménière's disease and muscular tremors, and as a pre-anaesthetic. Cattle find D. cucullaria and D. canadensis distasteful and usually do not ingest the plants unless suitable forage is unavailable ; when they do, however, the toxic alkaloid cucullarine brings about local anaesthesia, narcosis, convulsions, and death . A decoction from the rhizome of D. formosa has been used in the Pacific Northwest to expel intestinal worms (D. E. Moerman 1986).
Dicentra spectabilis (Linnaeus) Lemaire is cultivated through much of the flora area. It was introduced in Europe only in the middle of the 19th century, but it has been cultivated for centuries in temperate China and Japan, where it is now so widespread that the limits of its natural distribution are obscure . It does not appear to be truly naturalized in North America, but it may be encountered as a transitory garden relict or escape . It differs from D. ochroleuca and D. chrysantha in having rose-purple to pink or sometimes white outer petals, pendent flowers, and reticulate seeds with elaiosomes.
Berg , R. Y. 1969. Adaptation and evolution in Dicentra (Fumariaceae), with special reference to seed, fruit, and dispersal mechanism . Nytt Mag. Bot. 16(1) : 49-75. Fahselt, D. 1970. The anthocyanins of Dicentra (Fumariaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 48(1) : 49-53. Fahselt, D. and M. Ownbey. 1968. Chromatographic comparison of Dicentra species and hybrids. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 334-345. Stern, K . R. 1961. Revision of Dicentra (Fumariaceae). Brittonia 13(1) : 1-57. Stern, K. R. 1962. The use of pollen morphology in the taxonomy of Dicentra. Amer. J. Bot. 49: 362-368. Stern, K. R. 1970. Pollen aperture variation and phylogeny in Dicentra. MadroÃ±o 20: 354-359. Stern, K. R. and M. Ownbey. 1971. Hybridization and cytotaxonomy of Dicentra. Amer. J. Bot. 58(9) : 861-866.
Species Dicentra canadensis
Plants perennial , scapose , from short rootstocks bearing yellow, globose bulblets. Leaves (10-) 14-24(-30) × (4-) 6-14(-18) cm; petiole (5-) 8-16(-22) cm; blade with 4 orders of leaflets and lobes ; abaxial surface glaucous; ultimate lobes linear to linear-elliptic or linear-obovate, (2-) 5-15(-23) × (0.4-) 2-4 mm, usually minutely apiculate . Inflorescences racemose, 3-12-flowered, usually exceeding leaves, (10-) 15-27(-33) cm; bracts ovate , 2-5 × 1-3 mm. Flowers pendent, very fragrant; pedicels (2-) 3-7(-14) mm; sepals triangular to ovate, 2-4 × 1-2 mm, apex acuminate; petals white; outer petals (10-) 12-16(-20) × (2-) 4-5(-8) mm, reflexed portion 3-5 mm; inner petals (10-) 12-15(-18) mm, blade 2-4 mm, claw linear-elliptic, 5-9 mm, crest prominent , ca. 2 mm diam., exceeding apex by ca. 2 mm; filaments of each bundle distinct nearly to base ; nectariferous tissue forming 0.5-1 mm spur oriented vertically; style 4-7 mm; stigma shallowly 2-horned with 2 lateral papillae. Capsules ovoid , attenuate at both ends, (5-) 9-13(-17) × 3-6 mm. Seeds slightly reniform , very obscurely reticulate , elaiosome present. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Papaveraceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - poppies
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Bicuculla canadensis (Goldie) Millspaugh • Corydalis canadensis Goldie • Edinburgh Philos. J. 6: 329. 1822
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Dicentra
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
D. canadensis (Squirrel Corn) · D. cucullaria (Dutchman's Breeches) · D. exima 'Snowflakes' (Bleeding Heart) · D. eximia (Fringed Bleeding Heart) · D. eximia 'Snowflakes' (Turkey Corn) · D. eximia 'Alan Bloom' (Fringed Bleeding Heart) · D. eximia 'Aurora' (Aurora Bleeding Heart) · D. eximia 'Luxuriant' (Luxuriant Bleeding Heart) · D. eximia 'Stuart Boothman' (Stuart Boothman Dwarf Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa (Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa oregana (Pacific Bleeding-Heart) · D. formosa oregona (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Adrian Bloom' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Aurora' (Aurora Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Bacchanal' (Bacchanal Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Boothman's Variety' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Bountiful' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Langtrees' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Luxuriant' (Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Margery Fish' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Pearl Drops' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Silver Smith' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Snowdrift' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Sweetheart' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. formosa 'Zestful' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. macrantha (Chinese Bleeding Heart) · D. macrocapnos (Bleeding Heart Vine) · D. nevadensis (Sierra Bleeding Heart) · D. pauciflora (Few-Flower Bleedinghearts) · D. peregrina (Dicentra) · D. scandens (Bleeding Heart Vine) · D. scandens 'Athens Yellow' (Yellow Climbing Bleeding Heart) · D. spectabilis 'Alba' (Bleeding Heart) · D. spectabilis 'Gold Heart' (Bleeding Heart) · D. spectabilis 'Rosea' (Bleeding Heart) · D. uniflora (Longhorn Steer's-Head) · D. x 'Luxuriant' (Fern-Leaf Bleeding Heart) · D. 'Bacchanal' (Bacchanal Bleeding Heart) · D. 'Coldham' (Bleeding Heart) · D. 'Ivory Hearts' (Dwarf Bleeding Heart) · D. 'King of Hearts' (Bleeding Heart) · D. 'Luxuriant' (Pacific Bleeding Heart) · D. 'Snowflakes' (Bleeding Heart) · D. 'Snowflake' (Fernleaf Bleeding Heart)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645696
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18943
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494459
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:672637-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 405114
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18943
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 672637-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDFUM04010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BICA4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 24668
- Robert W. Kiger "Papaveraceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Kingsley R. Stern "Dicentra". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Dicentra canadensis". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]