, sometimes woody vines
with aerial roots
, rarely perennial
, andromonoecious or dioecious, often with stellate
indumentum or more rarely simple
, with or without prickles, secretory
canals present in most parts. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite (never in Chinese taxa), simple and often palmately lobed
, palmately compound
, or 1-3-pinnately compound
, usually crowded toward apices of branches, base
often broad and sheathing
stem, stipules absent or forming a ligule or membranous border
of petiole. Inflorescence terminal
or pseudo-lateral (by delayed development), umbellate
, compound-umbellate, racemose, racemose-umbellate, or racemose-paniculate, ultimate
usually umbels or heads
, occasionally racemes
or spikes, flowers rarely solitary; bracts usually present, often caducous
, rarely foliaceous
. Flowers bisexual
. Pedicels often jointed
below ovary and forming an articulation
. Calyx absent or forming a low rim
, sometimes undulate
or with short teeth. Corolla of (3-) 5(-20) petals, free
or rarely united
, mostly valvate
, sometimes imbricate. Stamens usually as many as and alternate with petals, sometimes numerous
of disk; anthers
, 2-celled (or 4-celled in some non-Chinese taxa), longitudinally dehiscent
. Disk epigynous, often fleshy
, slightly depressed
or conic, sometimes confluent
with styles. Ovary inferior (rarely secondarily superior in some non-Chinese taxa), (1 or) 2-10(to many) -carpellate; carpels united, with as many locules; ovules pendulous, 2 per locule, 1 abortive
; styles as many as carpels, free or partially united, erect
or recurved, or fully united to form a column; stigmas terminal or decurrent on inner face
of styles, or sessile on disk, circular to elliptic
and radiating. Fruit a drupe or berry, terete
or sometimes laterally compressed
, occasionally vertically compressed
fleshy; pyrenes cartilaginous
or membranous, often laterally compressed. Seeds 1 per pyrene, embryo small, endosperm uniform
About 50 genera and 1350 species: widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, much less diverse in temperate areas; 23 genera (two endemic, one introduced ) and 180 species (82 endemic, seven introduced) in China.
Chinese genera of economic importance include Aralia, Eleutherococcus, Heteropanax, Panax, and Tetrapanax (medicinal), Hedera (ornamental ), Fatsia and Schefflera (medicinal and ornamental), and Kalopanax (timber) .
Recent phylogenetic studies (Plunkett and Lowry, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 19: 259-276. 2001; Wen et al. , Syst. Bot. 26: 144-167. 2001; Chandler and Plunkett, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144: 123-147. 2004; Mitchell and Wen, Taxon 53: 29-41. 2004; Plunkett et al., S. Afr. J. Bot. 70: 371-381. 2004) have shown that Hydrocotyle Linnaeus belongs to Araliaceae, despite being traditionally included in Apiaceae (see Fl. China 14: 14-18. 2005) .
Diplopanax Handel-Mazzetti was at one time placed in Araliaceae but is now regarded as a member of Mastixiaceae (see Fl. China 14: 231-232. 2005) .
or andromonoecious, unarmed
. Leaves simple
or palmately 2- or 3(-5) -lobed, often with yellow or red glandular
sometimes evident only under transmitted light), margins
entire or with few irregular teeth; stipules small and united
or absent. Inflorescence a terminal
simple umbel, a small raceme
of umbels, or a compound
umbel. Pedicels not articulate
below ovary. Calyx entire or 5-toothed. Petals 5, valvate
. Stamens 5. Ovary (2-) 5-carpellate; styles distinct
or united basally or throughout into a column. Fruit a drupe. Seeds laterally compressed
; endosperm uniform
About 80 species: tropical America, E Asia.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Apiales () - Nakai, 1930
- Superorder: Aralianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Standl. Publication : J. Wash . Acad. Sci. 1927, xvii. 316.
Members of the genus Dendropanax
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Flora of Costa Rica. .. by Paul C. Standley. .. 18 1938 Chicago, 1937. url p. 852, p. 853.
- Hoo Gin & Tseng Chang-jiang. 1978. Araliaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 54: i-ix, 1-210.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 14, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
- Orthoptera Species File Online, 2.5, 2006.
- Systematic Database of the Scale Insects of the World 2004.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Jan 19, 2007.
- Universal Chalcidoidea Database 2005.
- World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesFeb 2, 2006.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9285874
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 90273-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1193413
- Qibai Xiang & Porter P. Lowry "Araliaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 435. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Dendropanax". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 436, 437, 442. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]