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Dendrocnide sinuata

(Stinging Tree (Aust))

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Chinese:

(As Lcrenulata), Quan Yuan Huo Ma Shu

Common Names in English:

Devil Nettle, Fever Nettle, Mouse Nettle, Stinger (Aust), Stinging Tree (Aust)

Common Names in Hindi:

Morange, Utigun

Common Names in Malayalam:

Elampilavu (As L Crenulata), Moricha (As L Crenulata)

Common Names in Tamil:

Anaichorian, Otta Pilava

Common Names in Thai:

Kalangtang Chang

Description

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Family Urticaceae

Herbs, subshrubs , or shrubs , rarely trees , very rarely climbing , stems often fibrous , sometimes succulent. sometimes armed with stinging hairs ; epidermal cells of leaves, sometimes stems, perianths mostly with prominent cystoliths punctiform to linear ; Leaves alternate or opposite, stipules present, rarely absent; leaf blade simple . Inflorescences cymose , paniculate , racemose, spicate , or cluster-capitate, usually formed from glomerules , sometimes crowded on common enlarged cuplike or discoid receptacle, rarely reduced into a single flower. Flowers unisexual (plants monoecious or dioecious), rarely bisexual in partial flowers; actinomorphic , very small, (1-) 4- or 5-merous, rarely perianth absent in female flowers. Calyx absent. Perianth lobes imbricate or valvate . Male flowers: stamens as many as and opposite to perianth lobes, filaments inflexed in bud; anthers 2-locular, opening lengthwise, rudimentary ovary often present. Female flowers: perianth lobes free or connate , usually enlarged in fruit and persistent , occasionally absent; staminodes scarious , opposite to the perianth lobes, or absent. Ovary rudimentary in male flowers, sessile or shortly stipitate , free or adnate to the perianth; 1-locular, ovule solitary, erect from the base ; style simple, or absent; stigma diverse , capitate, penicillate-capitate (brushlike), subulate , filiform , ligulate , or peltate. Fruit usually a dry achene, sometimes a fleshy drupe, often enclosed by the persistent perianth. Seed solitary, endosperm usually present; embryo straight; cotyledons ovate elliptical or orbicular .

About 47 genera and 1300 species: most numerous in wet tropical regions , extending into temperate regions ; 25 genera and 341 species (163 endemic, one introduced ) in China.

Plants in this family have numerous uses. The stem fiber of some genera and species is of high quality and used to make cloth, fishing nets , and ropes and for some industrial materials . In central and southern China,

Boehmeria nivea is widely cultivated for ramie fiber and Girardinia diversifolia subsp. triloba is widely cultivated for  red huo ma  fiber. Boiled young shoots of Girardinia, Laportea, and Urtica are eaten as vegetables. Some species are used in local Chinese medicine. Pellionia repens, Pilea cadierei, P. microphylla, and P. peperomioides, among other species, are widely cultivated as ornamentals in China and elsewhere. Some genera, such as Elatostema, Pellionia, and Pilea, occur frequently in shady, moist habitats of subtropical forests and become dominant elements of the forest floor vegetation. Plants of the first five genera belong to tribe Urticeae, which is usually characterized by the distinctive stinging hairs.[1]

Genus Dendrocnide

Trees or shrubs , evergreen , branches sympodial, often with terminal rosettes of leaves, armed with stinging hairs . Leaves alternate, spiral , petiolate ; stipules deciduous, intrapetiolar , completely connate , leathery, often large, apex entire; leaf blade leathery or papery , pinnately veined, rarely 3-5-veined, margin entire, undulate , or crenulate ; cystoliths punctiform . Inflorescences solitary, pedunculate , generally forming cymose-panicles or racemes unisexual (plants dioecious) ; female glomerules often with thickened, fleshy flabellate receptacle; bracts present. Male flowers 4- or 5-merous; filaments of stamens inflexed in bud; rudimentary ovary conspicuous . Female flowers: perianth lobes 4, connate at base , subequal , lateral lobes slightly larger; staminodes absent. Ovary ovoid, erect ; stigma filiform or ligulate , papillous on 1 side; ovule orthotropous . Achene slightly oblique , often compressed , often large, verrucose , persistent stigma usually reflexed ; pedicels simple or swollen, cylindric , not winged . Seeds with thin or no endosperm; cotyledons broad.

About 36 species: S and SE Asia, Australia, Pacific Islands; six species (one endemic) in China.

The stem fibers are used to make ropes. The stinging hairs may be very irritating.[2]

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Laportea sinuata (Blume) Miq. • Urtica sinuata Blume • Urticastrum Sinuatum

Notes

Publishing author : Chew Publication : Gard. Bull . Singapore 21: 206 1965

Basionym author: (Blume)

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Dendrocnide

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

D. excelsa (Gimpi Gimpi (Aboriginal-Aust)) · D. moroides (Mulberry-Leaved Stinger) · D. photinophylla (Mulberry-Leaved Stinging Tree) · D. sinuata (Stinging Tree (Aust)) · D. stimulans (Stinging Tree (Aust)) · D. urentissima (Stinging Tree (Aust))

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 17, 2008:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Jiarui Chen, Prof. Qi Lin, Ib Friis, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear & Alex K. Monro "Urticaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 76. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Chen Chia-jui, Ib Friis, C. Melanie Wilmot-Dear "Dendrocnide". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 88. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-10