Common Names in English:
Dendrobium Ainsworthii Orchid
Herbs or rarely vines
, rarely annual
, strongly mycotrophic, epiphytic, terrestrial
, lithophytic, or rarely aquatic
, usually green and photosynthetic, some without chlorophyll and saprophytic
subterranean or aerial
or stolonoid, usually with spongy
, multilayered velamen. Stems erect
or pendent or modified into creeping
or sympodially or monopodially branched, delicate to stout, or thickened as corms or pseudobulbs
, or greatly reduced, sometimes proliferous (especially diverse
in sympodial orchids) . Leaves solitary, several, or reduced to scales
, basal or cauline, alternate, distichous, or sometimes opposite or whorled
, either convolute or duplicate
, simple, sessile or petiolate
; stipules absent; blade
or not, plicate
, triangular, or laterally flattened, margins
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, spikes, panicles, or rarely cymose
, erect or variously pendent, 1 many-flowered, lax
or dense, flowering successively or simultaneously. Flowers bisexual
, resupinate or not, pedicellate
or sessile, 3-merous, usually bilaterally symmetric
[rarely nearly radially symmetric], with abscission layer between pedicel and peduncle, rarely between ovary and perianth or ovary and pedicel; perianth of 6 tepals in 2 whorls, all petaloid
or sepals sometimes greener and more foliaceous
; sepals alike or not, lateral sepals often connate
(forming synsepal), or all 3 sepals variously connate and/or adnate
; petals 3, median
petal modified as lip, commonly larger or differing in form and color, lateral petals commonly but not always similar to sepals; nectaries of various sorts; extrafloral nectaries sometimes present on pedicels, bracts, or leaf sheaths
; stamens usually 1 2( 3, if 3 the 3d modified into sterile
staminode), all on side opposite lip, fully or partially adnate to style, forming column; pollen grains
, usually in 2 8 pollinia, sometimes subdivided into small packets, rarely granular
, sometimes pollinia with caudicles
and/or stipes; gynoecium 3-carpellate, connate, forming compound
, inferior, 1- or 3-locular ovary; style variously adnate to filaments
; stigmas usually 3-lobed, concave
, part of median stigma lobe
modified into rostellum
, often separating anther
portions of stigma, commonly preventing or in some cases facilitating self-pollination
; ovules numerous
, minute. Fruits capsules, opening (dehiscing) by longitudinal
slits, rarely fleshy
and indehiscent berries
. Seeds numerous (millions in some species), minute; endosperm absent.
Genera ca. 800, species 22,000 35,000 (701 genera, 208 species in the flora ; 1 genus, 6 species introduced) : worldwide except Antarctica, most diverse in tropical forests .
The overall count for orchid genera in the flora includes Spathoglottis plicata Blume, which was recently reported from Palm Beach County, Florida. The plants , known locally since 1982, are apparently widely naturalized in old shellpits. The number of species in the flora includes one newly recognized species in Habenaria that is morphologically described, but not fully treated here. Orchidaceae are by far the largest and most diverse monocot family and rank among the largest families of flowering plants. An accurate account of the number of genera and species has eluded orchid scientists, and species counts published in the last 20 years range from 15,000 to 35,000. New species are continually being described. In addition, numerous natural and artificial hybrids exist.
Although orchids are important in horticulture , most of the plants traded in the national and international market belong to a small number of species and their hybrids in only a few genera; the majority of orchids are not commonly cultivated. Few orchids are economically important outside the horticultural trade: the fruits of several species of Vanilla are the source of the spice vanilla, and the dry roots of some species of Dactylorhiza, Eulophia, and Orchis are made into salep, a flour consumed in northern Africa, the Middle East (especially Turkey), and Asia. Some species are locally used for medicinal purposes; the mucilage from pseudobulbs of several species is sometimes used as glue; and in the Far East the stems of some species of Dendrobium are split into strips used to weave handicrafts. A few orchids have been found to cause contact dermatitis (e.g. , Cypripedium reginae) .
Orchids range vegetatively from Lilliputian plants a few millimeters long (Bulbophyllum Thouars and Platystele Schlechter) to gigantic clusters weighing several hundred kilograms (Grammatophyllum Blume) to some as much as 13.4 meters in height (Sobralia altissima D. E. Bennett & Christenson, a recently described species from Peru) . Likewise, flowers vary in size from less than 1 mm and barely visible to the naked eye (Platystele Garay), to 15 20 cm diameter (some Paphiopedilum Pfitzer, Phragmipedium Rolfe, and Cattleya Lindley spp. ), and ultimately to 76 cm [Phragmipedium caudatum (Lindley) Rolfe]. Weight can vary from a fraction of a gram (many Pleurothallus R. Brown spp.) to nearly 100 grams (Coryanthes Hooker spp.) . Their fragrances vary from delightful (Cattleya Lindley) to repulsive and unbearable (in some species of Bulbophyllum Thouars) . The plants colonize habitats ranging from some of the driest and hottest places on earth to the wettest and coolest, literally occurring from polar regions to the equator. Within the monocots, the most important diagnostic features of Orchidaceae are reduction of adaxial stamens, fusion of the remaining stamens to the gynoecium forming the column, aggregation of pollen into compact pollinia (present elsewhere only in the dicots , in Asclepiadaceae), differentiation of the median petal into the lip, a sometimes complex organ, and the exceedingly small size of the seed, which lacks endosperm. Among other distinguishing characteristics: pollen in the pollinia is usually not available as a nutrient-source (Cleistes Richard ex Lindley being a notable exception), and the often complex interaction with pollinators culminates in the phenomenon of pseudocopulation in several genera (e.g., Ophrys Linnaeus, Caladenia R. Brown sect. Calonema, Drakaea Lindley) . In the latter process , the flower mimics the appearance , the smell, and often the movements of a female wasp, attracting a male of a suitable species that tries to copulate with the flower. It usually only succeeds in becoming attached to a pollinium , which will then be transferred if the male tries to copulate with another flower.
Roots of orchids may be covered with velamen, spongy layers derived from the epidermis ; fleshy thickenings of roots are tuberoids (tubers being restricted to stems) . Stems may be swollen or thickened, underground corms or aerial pseudobulbs. Flowers are often resupinate: the lip (modified median petal) is lowermost, usually as a result of the pedicel being twisted or bent in its development by 180°. Pedicellate ovary, usually used in reference to length , refers to the combined pedicel and ovary. Flowers are not always borne on pedicels; when they are, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a slender ovary and the pedicel. Consequently, because of their slender ovaries, flowers of a racemose spike appear to be pedicellate even though they are sessile, while a spicate raceme has pedicels so short that they appear to be absent. Orchid flowers often have a modified median sepal, the dorsal sepal. Sepals coalescing at their tips form a synsepal. The middle portion of the upper (adaxial) face of the lip is the disc: it may be a thickened callus and may bear hairs , papillae, or other ornamentation. In orchids the style, stigmas, filaments, and one or more anthers are united to form a column; appendages projecting laterally from the stigma are column wings; the lip may be attached to the protrusion at the base of the column to form a column foot ; lateral sepals that are also attached to the foot form a mentum (chin) . In most orchids the column bears a single anther at its apex; the clinandrium is the cavity within which the anther is borne or embedded . Pollen is borne in discrete masses (pollinia) . Genera with mealy (sectile) pollinia may have pollinia within the anther tapering into a caudicle (stalk ), which is attached to a sticky viscidium . Those with waxy pollinia have pollinia attached to one or two stipes (of stigmatic origin and formed outside the anther), which in turn are attached to a viscidium. The various aggregations of pollinia, caudicles, stipes, and viscidium form a pollinarium , the pollination unit carried by pollinators. The median stigma lobe may have a slender extension or little beak (rostellum), which aids in gluing the pollinarium to the pollinator.
epiphytic herbs. Stems terete
or not, erect
or pendulous, often thickened and forming short pseudobulb
, sometimes partly dilated
into several pseudobulbs, mostly surrounded by tight, persistent
. Leaves coriaceous
or subcoriaceous, entire, flat or rarely subterete and laterally flattened, often articulate
with sheaths. Inflorescence terminal
, from nodes of stem, racemose or flower solitary, rarely cymose
; peduncle obscure
or shorter than pedicel; bracts minute. Flowers resupinate; sepals subequal
, dorsal one free
, lateral ones often oblique
of column and forming spur-like or saccate
; petals more or less similar to dorsal sepal; lip various, attached to and usually incumbent
on foot of column, contracted
or clawed at base, often 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, embracing
column; column short, with prominent
terminal, incumbent, 2celled; pollinia 4, ovoid
, waxy, connate
laterally in pairs in each cell
, without caudicle
below. Capsules ovoid to oblong.
About 1,000 species, from Japan, Korea and China, through India, Malaysia and Indonesia to Papua New Guinea and Australia; 12 species in Taiwan.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Dendrobium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10437 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
D. (Dendrobium Orchid) · D. 100th Battalion (Dendrobium 100th Battalion Orchid) · D. 442nd Infantry (Dendrobium 442nd Infantry Orchid) · D. Aaron Law (Dendrobium Aaron Law Orchid) · D. Aaron Zundel (Dendrobium Aaron Zundel Orchid) · D. Abang Betawi (Dendrobium Abang Betawi Orchid) · D. Abbey Louise Caris (Dendrobium Abbey Louise Caris Orchid) · D. Abdullah Badawi (Dendrobium Abdullah Badawi Orchid) · D. Abdullah the Second (Dendrobium Abdullah the Second Orchid) · D. aberrans (Dendrobium Aberrans Orchid) · D. Abu Hassan Omar (Dendrobium Abu Hassan Omar Orchid) · D. Accent (Dendrobium Accent Orchid) · D. Achara (Dendrobium Achara Orchid) · D. Achilles (Dendrobium Achilles Orchid) · D. Acis (Dendrobium Acis Orchid) · D. ACS Independent (Dendrobium ACS Independent Orchid) · D. ACS Lee Li Eng (Dendrobium ACS Lee Li Eng Orchid) · D. adae (Dendrobium Adae Orchid) · D. Adaminaby (Dendrobium Adaminaby Orchid) · D. Adam Lewis (Dendrobium Adam Lewis Orchid) · D. Adastra (Dendrobium Adastra Orchid) · D. Add (Dendrobium Add Orchid) · D. Adele (Dendrobium Adele Orchid) · D. Adele Fortescue (Dendrobium Adele Fortescue Orchid) · D. Adele Isobel (Dendrobium Adele Isobel Orchid) · D. Adele's Carnival (Dendrobium Adele's Carnival Orchid) · D. Adele William (Dendrobium Adele William Orchid) · D. Adelia Angeles (Dendrobium Adelia Angeles Orchid) · D. Adeline (Dendrobium Adeline Orchid) · D. Adeline Chan (Dendrobium Adeline Chan Orchid) · D. Adisakdi White (Dendrobium Adisakdi White Orchid) · D. Admiral Momsen (Dendrobium Admiral Momsen Orchid) · D. Admiral Pink (Dendrobium Admiral Pink Orchid) · D. Adnan Robert (Dendrobium Adnan Robert Orchid) · D. Adonis (Dendrobium Adonis Orchid) · D. Adora Nishii (Dendrobium Adora Nishii Orchid) · D. Adorn (Dendrobium Adorn Orchid) · D. Ador Bautista (Dendrobium Ador Bautista Orchid) · D. Adrea Carter (Dendrobium Adrea Carter Orchid) · D. Adrian Lonne (Dendrobium Adrian Lonne Orchid) · D. aduncum (Angelfish Orchid) · D. Adventure (Dendrobium Adventure Orchid) · D. aemulum (Ironbark Orchid) · D. Aeneas (Dendrobium Aeneas Orchid) · D. Aeries (Dendrobium Aeries Orchid) · D. affine (Dendrobium Affine Orchid) · D. Afterglow (Dendrobium Afterglow Orchid) · D. Agatha Barbara (Dendrobium Agatha Barbara Orchid) · D. Agena Boy (Dendrobium Agena Boy Orchid) · D. Agena Cake (Dendrobium Agena Cake Orchid) · D. Agena Coral (Dendrobium Agena Coral Orchid) · D. Agena Duet (Dendrobium Agena Duet Orchid) · D. Agena Girl (Dendrobium Agena Girl Orchid) · D. Agena Harmony (Dendrobium Agena Harmony Orchid) · D. Agena Hepa (Dendrobium Agena Hepa Orchid) · D. Agena Jewel (Dendrobium Agena Jewel Orchid) · D. Agena Light (Dendrobium Agena Light Orchid) · D. Agena Peach (Dendrobium Agena Peach Orchid) · D. Agena Pink (Dendrobium Agena Pink Orchid) · D. Agena Racha (Dendrobium Agena Racha Orchid) · D. Agena Ruby (Dendrobium Agena Ruby Orchid) · D. Agena Sem (Dendrobium Agena Sem Orchid) · D. Agena Stripe (Dendrobium Agena Stripe Orchid) · D. aggregatum (Dendrobium Orchid) · D. Agnes Ann (Dendrobium Agnes Ann Orchid) · D. Agnes Cheok (Dendrobium Agnes Cheok Orchid) · D. Agnes Chin (Dendrobium Agnes Chin Orchid) · D. Agnes Larsen (Dendrobium Agnes Larsen Orchid) · D. Agnes May (Dendrobium Agnes May Orchid) · D. Agnes Ong (Dendrobium Agnes Ong Orchid) · D. Agnes Rathbone (Dendrobium Agnes Rathbone Orchid) · D. Agnes Vance (Dendrobium Agnes Vance Orchid) · D. Agnus (Dendrobium Agnus Orchid) · D. Agnusbelle (Dendrobium Agnusbelle Orchid) · D. agrostophyllum (Dendrobium Agrostophyllum Orchid) · D. Agung Pridadi Soetanto (Dendrobium Agung Pridadi Soetanto Orchid) · D. Ahiahi (Dendrobium Ahiahi Orchid) · D. Ahulani Hinojosa (Dendrobium Ahulani Hinojosa Orchid) · D. Ah May (Dendrobium Ah May Orchid) · D. Aida (Dendrobium Aida Orchid) · D. Aidan de Souza (Dendrobium Aidan De Souza Orchid) · D. Aiea Beauty (Dendrobium Aiea Beauty Orchid) · D. Aiea Sunrise (Dendrobium Aiea Sunrise Orchid) · D. Aiko (Dendrobium Aiko Orchid) · D. Aiko Akioka (Dendrobium Aiko Akioka Orchid) · D. Aiko Sukimoto (Dendrobium Aiko Sukimoto Orchid) · D. Aiko Tengan (Dendrobium Aiko Tengan Orchid) · D. Aileen (Dendrobium Aileen Orchid) · D. Aileen Burness (Dendrobium Aileen Burness Orchid) · D. Aileen Joyce (Dendrobium Aileen Joyce Orchid) · D. Aileen Lange (Dendrobium Aileen Lange Orchid) · D. Ailing (Dendrobium Ailing Orchid) · D. Aimee-Joe (Dendrobium Aimee-Joe Orchid) · D. Aimee Grezaffi (Dendrobium Aimee Grezaffi Orchid) · D. Aina Haina (Dendrobium Aina Haina Orchid) · D. Aining Law (Dendrobium Aining Law Orchid) · D. Ainsmerlin (Dendrobium Ainsmerlin Orchid) · D. Ainsworthii (Dendrobium Ainsworthii Orchid) · D. Ais (Dendrobium Ais Orchid) · D. Aisha (Dendrobium Aisha Orchid)
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