Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Poorland Flat Sedge, Flat Sedge, Poorland Flatsedge
Common Names in Portuguese:
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
or not, stoloniferous
or not. Roots
, principally adventitious. Stems (culms
) usually trigonous
, occasionally terete
, rarely compressed
, usually solid, rarely hollow or septate
. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, usually 3-ranked, rarely 2-ranked or multi-ranked, bases
enclosing stem, margins
usually fused; junction of sheaths and blades
often with adaxial
flaps of tissue
of hair (ligules) ; blades frequently absent from some basal leaves
, rarely from cauline leaves, when present divergent or ascending
, flat, folded, plicate
, rolled, or terete, linear
) a shortened axis; glumaceous
) 1-many, spirally arranged
, sometimes 2-ranked, usually appressed
or ascending; scales usually all fertile
, each subtending
a single flower, sometimes proximal
and/or distal scales empty; lateral
spikes often with basal, usually empty, usually 2-keeled scale (prophyll) ; occasionally prophyll subtending and enclosing rachilla, bearing 1 pistillate
, sometimes (0-) 3 staminate flowers
and empty scales (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Secondary inflorescences panicles, often modified to corymb, pseudoumbel, cyme (anthela), raceme
, spike, or capitulum (head
), rarely single spike, usually subtended by foliaceous
or, less frequently, glumaceous bracts; secondary inflorescences sometimes simulating spikelets (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia) . Flowers hypogynous, bisexual
in most genera, unisexual
in Scleria, Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia; perianth absent or with (1-) 3-6(-30) bristles
and/or scales, usually falling off with fruit; stamens usually (1-) 3, rarely more, usually distinct
; pistils 1, 2-3(-4) -carpellate, fused, locule 1; style undivided or branches 2-3(-4) ; stigma sometimes papillate
. Fruits achenes, usually trigonous or biconvex
; pericarps thin (except in Scleria) . Seeds 1; testa thin, free
from pericarp; embryo basal; endosperm abundant. x
= 5-ca. 100.
Genera ca. 100, species ca. 5000 (27 genera, 843 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
No consensus exists regarding the number of genera and the overall relationships of genera within Cyperaceae. The most recent account of the family (P. Goetghebeur 1998) recognized 104 genera distributed among 4 subfamilies and 14 tribes . That arrangement differs somewhat from that of J. Bruhl (1995) . With one minor exception the arrangement of the family here follows that of Goetghebeur.
The family is characterized by the occurrence of a number of unusual cytological features including: (1) chromosomes with diffuse centromeres , (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) pollen grains formed from tetrads in which 3 of the 4 microspores fail to develop. The first two features are found in at least some Juncaceae and are unique to the two families. Juncaceae also have pollen in tetrads, but in that family all four microspores produce pollen grains. Some species in some genera of Cyperaceae (particularly Eleocharis) possess chromosomes with localized centromeres (S. S. Bir et al. 1993) . The wide range of chromosome numbers found in Cyperaceae is largely because of agmatoploidy; polyploidy has been hypothesized for some genera, especially Eleocharis, although polyploidy has not been demonstrated unequivocally.
Because of morphologic similarities in vegetative and inflorescence characters, the family has commonly been associated with Poaceae. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity . Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 1995) ; they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
For most families of flowering plants the phenological data given are flowering times. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season , sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is more or less fully formed but not yet ripe . The fruiting period provided covers the entire range of the taxon . Quite a difference between fruiting periods in different parts of the range of the species may well occur, especially for widespread species and species with extensive elevation range.
For a recent, comprehensive review of the economic importance of Cyperaceae, see D. A. Simpson and C. A. Inglis (2001) .
or less often annual
, cespitose or not, rhizomatous
, rarely tuberous
solitary or not, trigonous
) prickles. Leaves usually basal; ligules absent; blades
abaxially, flat, V-, or inversely W-shaped in cross
. Inflorescences terminal
, rarely pseudolateral, 1st order
subumbellate to capitate, 2d order with spicate
or digitately arranged spikelets
, rarely a solitary spikelet; spikelets 1-150; 1st order rays unequal (rarely equal) in length
singly from the axils of inflorescence bracts
; involucral bracts
1-22, spirally arranged
at culm apex, spreading
, leaflike. Spikelets: scales
to 76, distichous, each subtending
, borne spicately or digitately at ends of rays (occasionally proliferous) . Flowers bisexual
], in axils of distichous floral scales, bases
often decurrent onto rachilla as ± hyaline
; perianth absent; stamens 1-3; styles linear
, 2-3-fid, base deciduous or persistent
; stigmas 2-3. Achenes biconvex
, flattened, or trigonous.
Species ca. 600: pantemperate and tropical .
Species Cyperus compressus
Herbs, annual , cespitose with fibrous roots . Culms trigonous , (2-) 6-15(-35) cm × (0.3-) 1-1.8 mm, glabrous . Leaves 1-5, flat to V-shaped, (1-) 5-15(-22) cm × (0.5-) 1.5-3 mm. Inflorescences: spikes ± digitate, ± globose , 7-40 × 10-20 mm; rays (0-) 1-6, 2-12 cm; if absent, inflorescence a sessile cluster of (1-) 3-10 spikelets ; rachis 2-5 mm; bracts (1-) 4-5(-6), ascending , V-shaped, 1-15(-20) cm × 0.5-3.5 mm; rachilla persistent , wingless. Spikelets (1-) 3-12(-16), greenish white, linear to linear-lanceoloid, compressed-quadrangular, 6-34(-40) × 2-3(-3.6) mm; floral scales deciduous, (8-) 16-36(-42), spreading , laterally whitish, greenish, or pale brownish, medially green, weakly 7-9-ribbed, laterally weakly 1-2-ribbed, most ribs medial , ovate , (2.4-) 2.6-3 × (1.9-) 2-2.4(-2.5) mm, apex acute to ± acute, cuspidate tip (0.3-) 0.5-0.7(-0.8) mm. Flowers: anthers 0.6-0.7 mm; styles 0.9-1.3 mm; stigmas 0.5-0.8 mm. Achenes brown, stipitate to sessile, obovoid , (1-) 1.2-1.4(-1.5) × 0.9-1(-1.1) mm, apex obtuse to emarginate , surfaces very finely puncticulate . Fruiting summer-early fall . [source]
Habit: Graminoid • Growth Form: Bunch • Shape and Orientation: Semi-Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Late Summer • Flower Color: Green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: No
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Summer and Fall • Growth Rate: Rapid • After Harvest Regrowth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 1.0 • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Various disturbed soils; 0-900 m .
Duration: Annual , Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: No • Propagated by Container: No • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: No • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: Yes • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Fall • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.0 • Maximum pH: 6.5 • Fertility Requirement: Low
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 50 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 37 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 160 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Family: Cyperaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - Sedge Family
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
C. pectinatus Roxburgh • C. pectiniformis Roemer & Schultes • Cyperus compressus var. pectiniformis (Roemer & Schultes) C. b. Clarke
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Cyperus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 172 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. acuminatus (Short-Point Flatsedge) · C. aggregatus (Inflated Scale Flatsedge) · C. albostriatus (Dwarf Umbrella Grass) · C. alopecuroides (Foxtail Flatsedge) · C. alternifolia (Umbrella Plant) · C. alternifolius var. Gracilis (Dwarf Umbrella Plant) · C. amabilis (Foothill Flatsedge) · C. amuricus (Asian Flatsedge) · C. aromaticus (Navua Sedge) · C. articulatus (Jointed Flatsedge) · C. auriculatus (Eared Flatsedge) · C. bipartitus (Brook Flatsedge) · C. calcicola (Caribbean Flatsedge) · C. cephalanthus (Buttonbush Flatsedge) · C. compressus (Poorland Flat Sedge) · C. confertus (West Indian Flatsedge) · C. congestus (Clustered Flatsedge) · C. croceus (Baldwin's Cyperus) · C. cuspidatus (Coastal Plain Flatsedge) · C. cyperinus (Old World Flatsedge) · C. cyperoides pseudoflavus (Pacific Island Flatsedge) · C. deamii (Deam's Flatsedge) · C. dentatus (Toothed Flatsedge) · C. dentoniae (Hairy Flatsedge) · C. diandrus (Umbrella Flat Sedge) · C. difformis (Smallflower Umbrella Sedge) · C. diffusus (Dwarf Umbrella Grass) · C. digitatus (Finger Flatsegde) · C. dioicus (Flatsedge) · C. dipsaceus (Wright Flatsedge) · C. distans (Piedmont Flatsedge) · C. distinctus (Marshland Flatsedge) · C. echinatus (Globe Flatsedge) · C. elegans (Royal Flatsedge) · C. entrerianus (Deeprooted Sedge) · C. eragrostis (Drain Flat-Sedge) · C. erythrorhizos (Red-Root Flat Sedge) · C. esculentus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus L. var. esculentus (Chufa Flatsedge) · C. esculentus var. esculentus (Chufa Flatsedge) · C. esculentus var. hermannii (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. leptostachyus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. macrostachyus (Yellow Nutsedge) · C. esculentus var. sativus (Chufa) · C. exaltatus (Tall Flat-Sedge) · C. fauriei (Alpine Flatsedge) · C. fendlerianus (Fendler Flatsedge) · C. filicinus (Fern Flatsedge) · C. filiformis (Wiry Flatsedge) · C. flavescens (Pale Flatsedge) · C. flavicomus (White-Edge Flatsedge) · C. flexuosus (Vahl's Flatsedge) · C. floribundus (Rio Grande Sedge) · C. floridanus (Florida Flatsedge) · C. fugax (Withering Flatsedge) · C. fuligineus (Limestone Flatsedge) · C. fuscus (Brown Flatsedge) · C. giganteus (Giant Flatsedge) · C. glaber (Galingale) · C. gracilis (Slimjim Flatsedge) · C. granitophilus (Granite Flatsedge) · C. grayi (Gray's Flatsedge) · C. grayoides (Illinois Flatsedge) · C. haspan (Haspan Flatsedge) · C. hermaphroditus (Hermaphrodite Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. hillebrandii var. hillebrandii (Hillebrand's Flatsedge) · C. houghtonii (Houghton's Flatsedge) · C. hyalinus (Queensland Sedge) · C. hypochlorus (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. brevior (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. hypochlorus (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypochlorus var. kauaiensis (Oahu Flatsedge) · C. hypopitys (Pinewoods Sedge) · C. hystricinus (Bristly Flatsedge) · C. imbricatus (Shingle Flatsegde) · C. involucratus (Galingale) · C. iria (Iria Flatsedge) · C. isocladus (Dwarf Papyrus) · C. javanicus (Javanese Flatsedge) · C. kunthianus (Maui Flatsedge) · C. kyllinga (Spikesedge) · C. laevigatus (Smooth Flatsedge) · C. lancastriensis (Many-Flowered Umbrella-Sedge) · C. lanceolatus (Epiphytic Flatsedge) · C. lecontei (Le Conte's Flatsedge) · C. lentiginosus (Latin American Flatsedge) · C. ligularis (Alabama Swamp Flatsedge) · C. longus (Sweet Cyperus) · C. louisianensis (Louisiana Flatsedge) · C. lucidus (Leafy Flat-Sedge) · C. lupulinus lupulinus (Great Plains Flatsedge) · C. lupulinus subsp. macilentus (Great Plains Flatsedge) · C. manimae (Smoothstem Flatsedge) · C. manimae var. asperrimus (Spectacular Flatsedte) · C. meyenianus (Meyen's Flatsedge) · C. mutisii (Mutis Flatsedge) · C. nanus (Indian Flatsedge) · C. nanus var. nanus (Indian Flatsedge)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ... A preliminary catalogue of the flora of New Jersey. Comp. by N. L. Britton. .. with the assistance of eminent botanists. New Brunswick, Office of the survey, 1881. url p. 108.
- A bibliographic enumeration of Bornean plants, by E. D. Merrill. Singapore, Printed by Fraser & Neave, ltd., 1921 url p. 54, p. 54.
- A flora of Manila, by E. D. Merrill. Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1912. url p. 109.
- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 35.
- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 1077, p. 1257.
- Agricultural news. Bridgetown, Barbados, Bowen & sons;1902-22. url p. 325.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 103.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 297, p. 300.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 124.
- Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. New-York: 1824-1876. url p. 270.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 115.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 132.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 5 1894 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 151.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 419, p. 449.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 57 Supplement 1993-1996 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 12.
- Botanical publications of E.D. Merrill. [New York, etc., 1899- url , p. 103, p. 54.
- Botany Cambridge, Mass., John Wilson and Son, 1880 url p. 214.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. 1879 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 106.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1919 1919 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 133, p. 264, p. 265.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 398.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 8 1912-1914 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 384.
- Catalogue of the African plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853-61. .. London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1896-1901. url p. 111.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52 2005 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 261, p. 361, p. 390, p. 401, p. 448, p. 449, p. 466, p. 50, p. 515, p. 52, p. 88.
- Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 11 1973 Ann Arbor: University Herbarium, University of Michigan, 1939- url p. 267.
- Contributions to North American ichthyology. Based primarily on the collections of the United States National Museum. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1877-78. url p. 106.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 430.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 31.
- Descriptive catalogue of the Formosan fungi / by Kaneyoshi Sawoda. Taihoku, Formosa: Agricultural Experiment Station, 1919- url p. 252, p. 79.
- Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years by Frederick Pursh. .. London: Printed for James Black and son, 1816. url .
- Flora Vitiensis nova: a new Flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only) / Albert C. Smith. Lawaii, Hawaii: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, 1979- url p. 249.
- Flora of Costa Rica. .. by Paul C. Standley. .. 18 1937 Chicago, 1937. url p. 97.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 48.
- Flora of Guatemala / by Paul C. Standley and Julian A. Steyermark. 24 1958 Chicago: Chicago Museum of Natural History, 1958. url p. 120.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 1030.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 199.
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 43.
- Flora of Peru... by J. Francis Macbride. 13 1936 Chicago, 1936- url p. 269.
- Flora of Yucatan, by Paul C. Standley. 3 1930 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1930. url p. 213.
- Flora of the Florida Keys; being descriptions of the seed-plants growing naturally on the islands of the Florida reef from Virginia Key to Dry Tortugas. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 20.
- Flora of the Lancetilla Valley, Honduras, by Paul C. Standley. 10 1931 Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, 1931. url p. 103.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 166, p. 166.
- Flora of the upper Gangetic plain, and of the adjacent Siwalik and sub-Himalayan tracts, by J. F. Duthie. Calcutta, Superintendent of Government Printing, 1903-29. url p. 328.
- Hand-book of Indian flora; being a guide to all the flowering plants hitherto described as indigenous to the continent of India. [Madras?]Trabancore Sircar Press, 1864-69. url , .
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany. 6 1854 London: Reeve, Benham, and Reeve, 1849-1857. url p. 27.
- Journal of botany: being a second series of the Botanical miscellany. 2 1840 London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman; Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1834-1842. url p. 393, p. 397.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 59.
- List of grasses and sedges found on the Nagpur and Telinkherifarms: including a few common species from other parts of the provinces / Nagpur: Govt. Press, 1913. url p. 11.
- Manual of the botany of the northern United States: including the district east of the Mississippi, and north of North Carolina and Tennessee / New York: American Book Company, c1889. url p. 570.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 162.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 493, p. 590.
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 31.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 59.
- Niger flora; or, An enumeration of the plants of western tropical Africa, collected by the late Dr. Theodore Vogel, botanist to the voyage of the expedition sent by Her Britannic Majesty to the river Niger in 1841, under the command of Capt. H. D. Trotter, R.N., &c.; includ London, H. Bailliere; [etc., etc.]1849. url p. 551.
- Observations on the gestation of some sharks and rays / Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1891. url p. 249, p. 322.
- Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, url p. 54.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 65.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 346, p. 378, p. 382.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 126, p. 390.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 390.
- Plantae Yucatanae. (Regionis Antillanae) Plants of the insular, coastal and plain regions of the peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. [By Charles Frederick Millspaugh.]. 3 1903 Chicago, 1903-1904. url p. 70.
- Proceedings - Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. url p. 189, p. 243.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 23, p. 360.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 218, p. 43.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 188.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 224.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 23 1882 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 106.
- South African journal of science. [Marshalltown, Transvaal: South African Association for the Advancement of Science, url p. 358.
- The Bahama flora, New York, The Authors, 1920. url .
- The Bahama flora, by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Charles Frederick Millspaugh. New York, The authors, 1920. url p. 44, p. 45, p. 45, p. 45, p. 45.
- The Cyperaceae of Central America, by Paul C. Standley. 8 1931 Chicago, 1931. url p. 254.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 430, p. 73.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 471.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 21 1886 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 103, p. 154, p. 16, p. 210, p. 307, p. 319, p. 6, p. 84, p. 96.
- The Philippine journal of science. 12 1917 Manila. url p. 231, p. 256, p. 325, p. 383, p. 398, p. 423, p. 449, p. 550, p. 59, p. 84.
- The botany of Bihar and Orissa: an account of all the known indigenous plants of the province and of the most important or most commonly cultivated exotic ones / with maps and introduction by H. H. Haines. London: Printed by Adlard and sold by agents for Indian Official Publications, 1921-25. url p. 1249.
- The century supplement to the dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / by Geo. Nicholson. .. [et al.]. Hyde Park, Mass.: Geo. T. King; 1901. url p. 280.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 543, p. 605, p. 605, p. 606.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The flora of North Carolina from Ranunculaceae to Salviniaceae / C.W. Hyams. Raleigh, N.C.: The North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1899. url p. 348.
- The flora of the American Virgin Islands / N.L. Britton. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1918. url p. 31.
- The flora of the Dutch West Indian islands. .. by I. Boldingh. Leyden, E. J. Brill, 1909-14. url p. 10, p. 183.
- The flora of the presidency of Bombay / By Theodore Cooke. London: Taylor and Francis, 1903-08. url p. 866.
- The natural history of Sokotra and Abdel-Kuri: being the report upon the results of the Conjoint Expedition to these Islands in 1898-9, by Mr. W.R. Ogilvie-Grant. .. and Dr. H.O. Forbes. .. / edited by Henry O. Forbes. Liverpool: The Free Public Museums, Henry Young and Sons, 1903. url p. 515.
- The sedges of Jamaica. Kingston, 1907. url p. 7.
- The vegetation of south Florida south of 27 30 north, exclusive of the Florida keys, by John W. Harshberger. Philadelphia, Wagner Free Institute of Science, 1914. url p. 95.
- Thwaites, G. H. K. Enumeratio plantarum Zeylaniae =An enumeration of Ceylon plants, with descriptions of the new and little known genera and species, observations on their habitats, uses, native names, etc. /by G.H.K. Thwaites; assisted in the identification of the species and synonymy by J.D. Hooker. 1864 London: Dulau, 1864 [i.e. 1858-1864]. url p. 342.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 110, p. 2.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. 25 1926 [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 100.
- Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Geo. W. Martin url p. 13.
- Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society. 18 1907 Cape Town, : The Society. url p. 251.
- Transactions of the Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia. 7 1910 Philadelphia: Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia, 1887-1927. url p. 95.
- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 106.
- Wanderings in the great forests of Borneo; travels and researches of a naturalist in Sarawak, London, A. Constable & co., ltd, 1904. url p. 131.
- [Pamphlets on agriculture in Guam] S.l.: s.n., 1905-1916 url p. 16.
- Bruhl, J. 1995. Sedge genera of the world: Relationships and a new classification of the Cyperaceae. Austral. Syst. Bot. 8: 125-305.
- Goetghebeur, P. 1998. Cyperaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 4, pp. 141-190.
- Mackenzie, K. K. 1931-1935. Cyperaceae [in part]. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Floraâ¦. 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 18, parts 1-7, pp. 1-478.
- Simpson, D. A. and C. A. Inglis. 2001. Cyperaceae of economic, ethnobotanical and horticultural importance: A checklist. Kew Bull. 56: 257-360.
- Svenson, H. K. 1957. Cyperaceae. Tribe 2, Scirpeae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 18, pp. 505-556.
- Tucker, G. C. 1987. The genera of Cyperaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 68: 361-445.
- Carter, J. R. 1984. A Systematic Study of the New World Species of Section Umbellati of Cyperus. Ph.D. dissertation. Vanderbilt University.
- Corcoran, M. L. 1941. A revision of the subgenus Pycreus in North and South America. Catholic Univ. Amer., Biol. Ser. 37: 168.
- Denton, M. F. 1978b. The Luzulae group of Cyperus (Cyperaceae). Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 11: 197271.
- Horvat, M. L. 1941. A revision of the subgenus Mariscus found in the United States. Catholic Univ. Amer., Biol. Ser. 33: 1147.
- Marcks, B. G. 1972. Population Studies of North American Cyperus Section Laxiglumi (Cyperaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Wisconsin.
- Marcks, B. G. 1974. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin, no. 66. Cyperaceae II Sedge family II. The genus Cyperusthe umbrella sedges. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. 62: 261284.
- McGivney, M. V. 1938. A revision of the subgenus Eucyperus found in the United States. Catholic Univ. Amer., Biol. Ser. 26: 174.
- Tucker, G. C. 1983. The taxonomy of Cyperus (Cyperaceae) in Costa Rica and Panama. Syst. Bot. Mongr. 2: 185.
- Tucker, G. C. 1994. A revision of the Mexican species of Cyperus L. (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 43: 1214.
- Tucker, G. C. and R. McVaugh. 1993. Cyperus. In: R. McVaugh and W. R. Anderson, eds. 1974+. Flora Novo-Galiciana: A Descriptive Account of the Vascular Plants of Western Mexico. 8+ vols. Ann Arbor. Vol. 3, pp. 270344.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Galapagos grasses and sedges
- The New York Botanical Garden, Species of Eastern Brazil Vascular Plant Specimens
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2660432
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-236092
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13730640
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:304158-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 401630
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 39913
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMCYP060E0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CYCO
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 33894
- Peter W. Ball, A. A. Reznicek, David F. Murray "Cyperaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 3, 4, 192, 243, 252. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Gordon C. Tucker, Brian G. Marcks & J. Richard Carter "Cyperus". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 7, 141, 154, 162, 163, 164, 168, 170, 184,. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Cyperus". in Flora of North America Vol. 23 Page 144, 145, 171. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]